7-15%). Further, the dechlorination potentialities of ‘Dehalococcoides’ species living in the aquifer were evaluated by analyzing the abundance and the expression of 16S rRNA genes and reductive dehalogenase (RDase) encoding functional genes by qPCR and Reverse Transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR). ‘Dehalococcoides’ tceA gene, known to be associated to strains capable of reducing chlorinated solvents beyond cis-DCE, was found and
expressed in the field. Overall, this study proved the existence of a well-established dechlorinating microbial community able to use contaminants as substrates for their metabolic activity PD-0332991 in vitro and indicated the occurrence of reductive dechlorination at the site.”
“We examine the conditions for the transition from antagonism to mutualism between plants and their specialists nursery pollinators in a reference case which is the Trollius europaeus-Chiastocheta interaction. The mechanistic model we developed shows that a specialization of T. europaeus on Chiastocheta could be the result of an attempt to escape
over-exploitation by closing its flower. The pressure for such an escape increases with the parasite’s frequency and its pollination efficiency but decreases in the presence of alternative pollinators. The resulting specialization is a priori an unstable one, leading either to strong evolutionary oscillations, or to evolutionary suicide due to over-exploitation of the plants. It becomes stable if the plants develop a defense mechanism to regulate their parasite’s Quisinostat mw population size and limit seed-exploitation. The development of a counter-measure by the latter can destabilize the mutualism depending on the costs linked to such a trait. On the other hand, we find that a specialization on a purely
mutualistic basis would require a preexisting high diversity of flower-opening within the population. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are increasingly being considered for bioremediation applications, such as the reductive transformation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in subsurface environments. These systems typically rely on a polarized solid-state electrode (i.e. a cathode) serving as electron donor for the microbially catalyzed reductive dechlorination Adenosine of chlorinated contaminants. The microorganisms involved in dechlorinating biocathodes are not still identified. Particularly, it is not clear whether the same microorganisms responsible for the reductive dechlorination in ‘conventional’ bioremediation systems (i.e. those based on the supply of soluble substrates as electron donors) also play a role in BES. Here, we analyzed by CARD-FISH, the microbial composition of a dechlorinating biocathode operated at different set potential, in the range from -250 mV to -750 mV (vs. the standard hydrogen electrode, SHE). The rate and extent of TCE dechlorination, as well as of competing metabolisms (i.e.