It is important to consider the existence of discogenic groin pai

It is important to consider the existence of discogenic groin pain if patients do not show low back pain.”
“Objectives: To describe long-term activity limitation, participation restriction, and patients’ overall perception of

recovery among stroke patients 4 years poststroke, and to evaluate the association between the factors. In addition, the study investigated those factors present at the time of stroke onset, which could predict the level of activity limitation and participation restriction at 4 years poststroke.\n\nDesign: Prospective, 4-year follow-up study.\n\nSetting: Subjects’ AZD7762 homes, via telephone.\n\nParticipants: All first ever stroke patients (N=139) admitted to the Sheba Medical Center in Israel between February and March 2004 were followed and reassessed for activity and participation restrictions.\n\nInterventions: Not applicable.\n\nMain Outcome Measures: Barthel index (BI) (activity limitation, BI<95) and Frenchay Activities Index (FAI) (participation

restriction, FAI<30). Perception of recovery was assessed by 2 simple questions.\n\nResults: MEK162 molecular weight At 4 years poststroke, 9 patients (6.4%) were lost to follow-up, 71(54.1%) patients had survived; 42.3% with activity limitation, 28.2% were classified as restricted in participation, and 78.1% felt they had not completely recovered. Age at stroke onset and disability in the acute phase were the most significant predictors of activity limitation at 4 years poststroke. None of the demographic characteristics or baseline clinical features predicted participation restriction. A positive association (rho=0.6)

was noted between activity limitation and participation restriction 4 years poststroke.\n\nConclusions: This is the first study to describe long-term outcomes SNX-5422 poststroke in Israel. Activity limitation and participation restriction remain highly prevalent up to 4 years after stroke. The potential influence of additional factors (psychosocial, cognitive, and environmental) as predictors of participation restriction should be topics for future investigation.”
“The ethics of diagnosis and management of fetal genetic disorders are particularly controversial because of the contested status of the fetus and perceptions of genetics. An additional complicating factor is the potential conflict between mother and fetus. Ethical issues in diagnosis include the nature and purpose of the diagnosis itself, and management of the information. Management of the disorder includes issues of termination as an option, and the emerging field of fetal gene therapy with associated issues of somatic versus germ-line interventions. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

In the past decades, many interventional approaches have been tak

In the past decades, many interventional approaches have been taken in an attempt to restore functional cardiomyocytes in an injured heart. Promising advances have been made in directly

reprogramming mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells both in vitro and in vivo. Recently, several click here different methods have been reported, including the use of transcription factors and microRNAs. In addition, two in vivo studies showed heart function improvements with delivery of reprogramming factors in mouse infarcted hearts. Although many of these studies are at early preliminary stages, the plausibility of applying cardiac reprogramming on patients for regenerative purposes is exciting, and may lead to numerous novel research directions in the field. This review will discuss the history, recent advances

and challenges of cellular reprogramming, specifically in the field of cardiac regeneration.”
“Polycaprolactone (PCL) and PCL/gelatin membranes and films were fabricated by electrospinning and selleck screening library solvent casting. A systematic analysis of the morphology evolution, as degradation occurred, was made to separate the contribution of fiber nanotexture and gelatin biochemical signal on cell adhesion and proliferation. Field emission scanning electron microscope was used to assess the contribution of platform architecture on the gelatin degradation by the morphological changes that occurred at different times. The evaluation of human mesenchymal stem cells’ biocompatibility confirmed the role of architecture and chemical composition on cell response. The nanostructured surfaces positively affected the cell recognition by increasing the surface area. The gelatin embedded in the PCL matrix of the nanofibers improved the cell/material interaction and provided support to the proliferation. The PCL/gelatin electrospun membranes showed an increase in mineralization when conditioned in osteogenic medium; this system has promise for long-term in vitro investigations of bone regeneration.”
“Norovirus (NV) is the most common causative agent of nonbacterial gastroenteritis.

Reports of surveillance of NV in facilities Elafibranor that reported outbreaks are frequently found in publications, but reports of that in facilities without outbreaks are not found. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of NV isolates derived from asymptomatic food handlers working at a nonoutbreak food catering facility in Hokkaido, Japan, from February to March in 2005 and January to February in 2006 by RNA polymerase gene sequencing. Approximately 12% (20/159) of the samples were positive for genogroup II (GII; 10.1% in 2005 and 14.2% in 2006). The GI genotypes were not detected. The data from the phylogenetic analysis indicated that, among the 20 strains detected, 13 strains were GII/genotype 2 (GII/2), two were GII/3, three were GII/8, and two were GII/12.

These findings demonstrate that Tn plays an important role in the

These findings demonstrate that Tn plays an important role in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart via on-off switching of the thin filament state, in concert with titin-based regulation.”
“Inteins are self-splicing proteins that occur in-frame within host-coded proteins. DNA elements coding for inteins insert specifically in highly conserved motifs of target genes. These mobile genetic elements have an uneven distribution and thus far have been found only in certain species of bacteria, archaea

and fungi, a few viruses of algae and amoebozoa and in the entomopathogen, Chilo iridescent virus (CIV). Here, we report the discovery of seven new inteins parasitizing iridoviruses infecting Trichostatin A cell line metazoans: three within their delta DNA polymerase genes and four in genes coding for their large ribonucleotide reductase subunit. selleck screening library Analyses of coding sequences suggest that these inteins were acquired by ancestors shared by viruses currently

classified as members of different families of viruses with large double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes and then were maintained by vertical transmission, or lost. Of significant interest is the finding that inteins present in the delta DNA polymerases of iridoviruses insert at a different location into the YGDTDS motif when compared to those found in other viruses and prokaryotes. In addition, our phylogenetic investigations suggest that inteins present in the delta DNA polymerases of these viruses might have an origin different from those found in prokaryotes. Finally, we use the sequence features of the intein insertion sites in host genes to discuss the high polymorphisms of inteins within and among viral species and the immunity of their genetic counterparts in the eukaryotic hosts of these viruses. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Inflammation-induced activation of endothelium constitutes

one of the earliest changes during atherogenesis. New imaging techniques that allow detecting activated endothelial cells can improve the identification of persons at high cardiovascular risk in early stages. Quantum dots (QDs) have attractive optical properties such as bright fluorescence and high photostability, and have been increasingly studied and Cl-amidine Immunology & Inflammation inhibitor developed for bio-imaging and bio-targeting applications. We report here the development of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 binding peptide (VCAM-1 binding peptide) functionalized QDs (VQDs) from amino QDs. It was found that the QD fluorescence signal in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) treated endothelial cells in vitro was significantly higher when these cells were labeled with VQDs than amino QDs. The VQD labeling of TNF-alpha-treated endothelial cells was VCAM-1 specific since pre-incubation with recombinant VCAM-1 blocked cells’ uptake of VQDs. Our ex vivo and in vivo experiments showed that in the inflamed endothelium, QD fluorescence signal from VQDs was also much stronger than that of amino QDs.

Traditionally, these parameters are estimated in mutation accumul

Traditionally, these parameters are estimated in mutation accumulation experiments where replicate lines are propagated in conditions that allow mutations to randomly accumulate without the purging effect of natural selection. These

experiments have been performed with many model organisms but we still lack empirical estimates of the rate and effects of mutation in the protists.\n\nResults: We performed a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment in Tetrahymena thermophila, a species that can reproduce sexually and asexually in nature, see more and measured both the mean decline and variance increase in fitness of 20 lines. The results obtained with T. thermophila were compared with T. pyriformis that is an obligate asexual species. We show that MA lines of T. thermophila go to extinction at a rate of 1.25 clonal extinctions per bottleneck. In contrast, populations of T. pyriformis show a much higher resistance to extinction. Variation in gene copy number is likely to be a key factor in explaining these results, and indeed we show that T. pyriformis has a higher mean copy number per cell than T. thermophila.

From fitness measurements during the MA experiment, we infer a rate of mutation to copy number variation of 0.0333 per haploid MAC genome of T. thermophila and a mean effect against copy number variation of 0.16. A strong effect of population LCL161 solubility dmso size in the rate of fitness decline was also found, consistent with the increased power of natural selection.\n\nConclusions: The rate of clonal extinction measured for T. thermophila is characteristic of a mutational degradation and suggests that this species must undergo sexual reproduction to avoid the deleterious effects detected in the laboratory this website experiments. We also suggest that an increase in chromosomal copy number associated with the phenotypic assortment of amitotic divisions can provide an alternative mechanism to escape the deleterious effect of random chromosomal

copy number variation in species like T. pyriformis that lack the resetting mechanism of sexual reproduction. Our results are relevant to the understanding of cell line longevity and senescence in ciliates.”
“Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation atrophy of rat muscle, prevents denervation-induced nuclear accumulation of intracellular domain of the Notch receptor, and elevates expression of Numb. Numb acts as an inhibitor of Notch signaling and promotes myogenic differentiation of satellite cells. Turnover of Numb is regulated by mdm2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. With these considerations in mind, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on the expression of Numb and mdm2 proteins and determined the effect of mdm2 on nandrolone-induced alterations in Numb protein in C2C12 myoblasts.

Recurrence of NHL at sites of macroscopic disease remains common

Recurrence of NHL at sites of macroscopic disease remains common despite HDC. IF-RT achieves excellent local regional control and consolidative IF-RT after ASCT seems indicated, particularly in patients with bulky disease. In the absence of a prospective randomized trial and proven impact on survival rates, IF-RT can be recommended as an option post-ASCT to enhance Mocetinostat in vivo local disease control. Copyright (C) 2007

John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Background: Rhythm disturbances are a frequent clinical manifestation of depression. In recent years a possible relationship between depression and chronotypes has emerged. Specifically eveningness has been proposed as vulnerability factor. The aim of this study was to describe sleep features of depressed patients according to chronotypes and to explore possible associations with the clinical features of depressive episodes.\n\nMethods: 100 patients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were included (age: 34 +/- 11.74, range: 18-60 years; female/male:79/21). At admission the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) was administered. Patients were also administered the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Pittsburgh

Sleep Quality Index.\n\nResults: According to MEQ scores patients were classified in three groups: a) eveningness (n = 18), b) neither (n = 61) and c) morningness type (n = 21). ACY-738 in vivo The age was different among chronotypes, being morningness-type patients older. The eveningness-type

group showed higher scores in suicidal thoughts, more impaired work and activities, higher paranoid symptoms, higher scores on the anxiety cluster (HRSD), while the morningness-type group showed lower proportion of melancholic symptoms (MINI). We did not find association between sleep parameters and specific chronotypes.\n\nLimitations: The relatively small sample size and the concurrent assessment of chronotypes and depression may have biased our findings.\n\nConclusions: Our data suggest the idea that chronotypes have an impact on depressive episodes features, with higher severity for the eveningness-type. (C) Selleck Autophagy inhibitor 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Aims:\n\nTo explore the effect of Lactobacillus on redox state of colon chyme.\n\nMethods and Results:\n\nNine Lactobacillus strains were studied for the inhibition of lipid peroxide formation in Fe2+/ascorbate system and for their ability to chelate ‘free’ ferrous ion. The result shows both properties were strain specific and no relationship between them was found. Both properties of Lactobacillus paracasei Fn032, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus sp. Fn001 were successively decreasing.


composites exhibit much higher equilibrium a


composites exhibit much higher equilibrium adsorption capacity of 13.95 mg g(-1) at an initial MG concentration of 16 mg L-1, increasing by 15% than the neat PANI, which is mainly attributed to large surface areas and strong CNT-PANI interactions of the composites. In addition, theoretical analyses indicate that the adsorption kinetics and the isothermal process of the composites can be well explained by using the Ho pseudosecond-order model and the Langmuir model, respectively. In light of their high MG adsorption and easy operation, the CNT/PANI composites have great potential as high-efficiency adsorbents for removal of dyes from wastewater. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 127: 2475-2482, 2013″
“This paper presents an in-depth theoretical examination of graphene-based field effect transistors, looking at thermal statistics, electrostatics, and electrodynamics. Using a first principles Combretastatin A4 mouse approach, the unique behavior observed in graphene-based field effect transistors, such as the

V-shaped transfer characteristic, limited channel pinch-off, and lack of off-state ( under gate modulation), are described. Unlike previous attempts, a description of both drift and diffusion currents in the device is presented. The effect selleck chemicals of external resistance on steady-state and high-frequency performance is examined. Comparisons of the theoretical results to experimental results are made and show good agreement. Finally, the theoretical work in this paper is used as a basis to discuss the possible source of some observed behavior in practical graphene-based field effect transistors. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3573517]“

with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) 3 MA experience psychological distress because of excessive and uncontrollable anxiety in everyday life. Only a few morphological studies have so far focused on specific brain regions of interest as well as the gray matter volume changes in GAD patients. This study evaluated gray matter volume alterations in whole-brain areas between GAD patients and healthy controls, and sex differences between the specific brain areas with significant volume changes in GAD patients using voxel-based morphometry. Twenty-two patients with GAD (13 men and nine women), who were diagnosed using the DSM-IV-TR, and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 men and nine women) participated in this study. The high-resolution MRI data were processed using voxel-based morphometry analysis on the basis of diffeomorphic anatomical registration through an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8. There was no significant difference in the total intracranial volume between GAD patients and controls, but a significant difference was observed between sexes (P smaller than 0.05).

Physicists needed the most time for treatment planning and author

Physicists needed the most time for treatment planning and authorization (64 min), whereas technicians were mostly needed in day-to-day radiotherapy treatment (15 min, 31 min including verification). Despite significant differences in specific steps between centers, overall working times and room occupation were comparable and representative. Special procedures (intraoperative radiotherapy/multicatheter brachytherapy) required considerable amounts of additional working time of physicians and physicists.\n\nIn this prospective analysis,

data of human resources and room occupation during treatment of breast cancer are presented for the first time. Each patient consumes about 12 buy Small molecule library h of human resources for treatment and 3.75 h for general tasks (physicians 4.7 h, physicists 1.8 h, and technicians 9.2 h).”
“The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of acute trapezius pain, induced by delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), on habitual trapezius activity. Long-term (5 h) surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity was recorded bilaterally

from the clavicular, descending, transverse, and ascending trapezius on two consecutive weekdays in eleven female subjects (mean age LDN-193189 22 years, range 20-24 years). Body and arm posture were recorded by inclinometers. Immediately after the first long-term recording, the subjects performed eccentric depression exercise of the left shoulder to induce DOMS. From day 1 to day 2, pressure pain threshold (PPT) decreased and pain scores on visual analog scale (VAS) increased for the left upper trapezius (P < .004 for all comparisons). Habitual sEMG activity (median sEMG level, mu V) of the clavicular and descending part of the exercised left trapezius increased from first to second long-term recording during periods with seated posture (P < .05 for both comparisons). In contrast, trapezius sEMG

activity remained unchanged for all other trapezius parts and postures. This study indicates that acute trapezius pain induces elevated habitual trapezius activity during periods with low biomechanical loading of the shoulder/neck muscles with the elevated sEMG activity being restricted Barasertib cell line to the painful part of the muscle. In contrast to the pain-adaption model, the current study indicates a relation between acute muscle pain and elevated low-level muscle activity; however, it remains unknown if development of chronic muscle pain can be preceded by an initial stage with elevated muscle activity. (C) 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. Xerostomia is caused by irradiation for head and neck cancer, depending on the dose to the parotid gland. To investigate which part of the parotid gland has to be spared with radiotherapy, detailed information about the vascular supply of the parotid gland is necessary.\n\nMethods. Arterial vessels of the head of a human cadaver were colored.

Targeted biopsy strategies will require new risk stratification m

Targeted biopsy strategies will require new risk stratification models that account for the increased likelihood of sampling the tumour. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association of Urology. All rights reserved.”
“Sorokina EM, Feinstein SI, Milovanova TN, Fisher AB. Identification

of the amino acid sequence that targets peroxiredoxin 6 to lysosome-like structures of lung epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 297: L871-L880, 2009. First published August 21, 2009; doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00052.2009.-Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6), an enzyme with glutathione peroxidase and PLA(2) (aiPLA(2)) activities, is highly expressed in respiratory epithelium, where it participates in phospholipid turnover and antioxidant defense. Prdx6 has been localized by immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation to acidic organelles (lung lamellar bodies and lysosomes) Taselisib chemical structure and cytosol. On the basis of their pH optima, we have postulated that protein Anlotinib in vivo subcellular

localization determines the balance between the two activities of Prdx6. Using green fluorescent protein-labeled protein expression in alveolar epithelial cell lines, we showed Prdx6 localization to organellar structures resembling lamellar bodies in mouse lung epithelial (MLE-12) cells and lysosomes in A549 cells. Localization within lamellar bodies/lysosomes was in the luminal compartment. Targeting to lysosome-like organelles was abolished by the deletion of amino acids 31-40 from the Prdx6 NH(2)-terminal region; deletion of the COOH-terminal region had no effect. A green fluorescent protein-labeled peptide containing only amino acids 31-40 showed lysosomal targeting that was abolished by mutation of S32 or G34 within the peptide. Studies

with mutated protein indicated that lipid binding was not necessary for Prdx6 targeting. This peptide sequence has no homology to known organellar targeting motifs. These studies indicate that the localization of Prdx6 in acidic organelles and consequent PLA(2) activity depend on a novel 10-aa peptide located at positions 31-40 of the protein.”
“Background: Studies have reported young ages at cancer diagnosis in HIV-infected persons and have suggested that HIV accelerates carcinogenesis. However, Elacridar manufacturer these comparisons did not account for differences in population age structures.\n\nObjective: To compare ages at diagnosis for non-AIDS-defining types of cancer that occur in both the AIDS and general populations, after adjustment for differences in age and other demographic characteristics between these populations.\n\nDesign: Registry linkage study.\n\nSetting: 15 HIV/AIDS and cancer registry databases in the United States.\n\nParticipants: 212 055 persons with AIDS enrolled in the U. S. HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study from 1996 to 2007.

gov, NCT01271127 “
“Twenty-five novel imidazole N-H substitu

gov, NCT01271127.”
“Twenty-five novel imidazole N-H substituted Daclatasvir (BMS-790052, DCV) analogues (8a-8y) were designed and synthesized as potential prodrugs. Structure modifications were performed in order to improve potency and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. All target compounds check details were evaluated in a hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b replicon, and the 2-oxoethyl acetate substituted compound 8t showed similar anti-HCV

activity (EC50 = 0.08 nM) to that of the lead compound Daclatasvir. Moreover, the utility of prodrug 8t was demonstrated through similar exposure of the parent compound when the prodrugs were dosed in vivo. PK studies showed that prodrug 8t was an ideal candidate for a slower and sustained release form of Daclatasvir. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This article reports the spread of bla(KPC-2) in the Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states, facilitated by globally spread K. pneumoniae clonal complex 258 (CC258) clones (ST258, ST11, and ST437) and a diversity of plasmids (IncFII, IncN, and IncL/M, two untypeable plasmids carrying Tn4401a or Tn4401b) successfully disseminated among species of the Enterobacteriaceae (Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia

marcescens, and Citrobacter freundii). It also constitutes the first description of sequence type 258 (ST258) in Brazil, which was associated with a nosocomial hospital outbreak in Ribeirao Preto city.”
“Crystal structures of histidyl-tRNA WZB117 in vitro synthetase (HisRS) from the eukaryotic parasites Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi provide a first structural view of a eukaryotic form of this enzyme and see more reveal differences from bacterial homologs. HisRSs in general contain an extra domain inserted between conserved motifs 2 and 3 of the Class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

catalytic core. The current structures show that the three-dimensional topology of this domain is very different in bacterial and archaeal/eukaryotic forms of the enzyme. Comparison of apo and histidine-bound trypanosomal structures indicates substantial active-site rearrangement upon histidine binding but relatively little subsequent rearrangement after reaction of histidine with ATP to form the enzyme’s first reaction product, histidyladenylate. The specific residues involved in forming the binding pocket for the adenine moiety differ substantially both from the previously characterized binding site in bacterial structures and from the homologous residues in human HisRSs. The essentiality of the single HisRS gene in T. brucei is shown by a severe depression of parasite growth rate that results from even partial suppression of expression by RNA interference. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A sensitive biotin-streptavidin amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BA-ELISA) method was developed for the determination of chloramphenicol residues in milk.

Overall, 39 patients were evaluable for efficacy, including one w

Overall, 39 patients were evaluable for efficacy, including one with confirmed partial response (PR) and seven patients with stable disease for a parts per thousand yen8 weeks (including one unconfirmed PR). The most commonly reported treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were neutropenia (22 patients), fatigue (12), leukopenia (7) and constipation (6); the most commonly reported grade a parts per thousand

yen3 TRAE was neutropenia (21). Four patients had serious TRAEs. On days 1 and 8, the geometric mean C-max of AZD4877 was 138 ng/ml (CV = 75 %) and 144 ng/ml (CV = 109 %), respectively. Conclusions AZD4877 was generally tolerable in patients with advanced urothelial cancer. Given the limited clinical efficacy, further development of AZD4877 in urothelial cancer is not planned.”
“Polyadenylation is a co-transcriptional Thiazovivin process that modifies mRNA 3′-ends in eukaryotes. In yeast, CF IA and CPF constitute the core 3′-end maturation complex. CF IA comprises Rna14p, Rna15p, Pcf11p and Clp1p. CF IA interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA Pol II largest subunit via Pcf11p which links pre-mRNA 3′-end processing to transcription termination. Here, we analysed the role of Clp1p in 3′ processing. Clp1p binds ATP and interacts in CF IA with Pcf11p only. Depletion of Clp1p abolishes transcription termination. Moreover,

check details we found that association of mutations in the ATP-binding domain and in the distant Pcf11p-binding region impair 3′-end processing. Strikingly, these mutations prevent not only Clp1p-Pcf11p interaction but also association of Pcf11p with Rna14p-Rna15p. ChIP experiments showed that Rna15p cross-linking to the 3′-end of a protein-coding gene is perturbed by these mutations whereas Pcf11p is only partially affected. Our study reveals Selleck HDAC inhibitor an essential role of Clp1p in CF IA organization. We

postulate that Clp1p transmits conformational changes to RNA Pol II through Pcf11p to couple transcription termination and 3′-end processing. These rearrangements likely rely on the correct orientation of ATP within Clp1p.”
“Reaction of Cr(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ion with 2,4-dihydrazino-thioamido-1-ethoxybutane led to the formation of mono and binuclear complexes. These complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis spectra, magnetic moments, molar conductances, H-1 NMR and mass spectra (ligand and its Zn(II) complex), thermal analyses (DTA and TGA) and ESR measurements. The IR data suggest the involvement of sulfur and azomethane nitrogen atoms in coordination to the central metal ion.The Molar conductances of the complexes in DMF are commensurate with their non-ionic character. The ESR spectra of Cu(II) complexes show axial type symmetry (d((x2-y2))) ground state with covalent bond character. On the basis of spectral studies, octahedral or tetrahedral geometry has been assigned to the metal complexes.