\n\nMethods: Forty-eight subjects (24 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis) undertook the six-minute walk test before and after an 8-week exercise program. The minimal important difference was calculated using a distribution-based and an anchor-based method. A global rating of change scale was used as the external criterion to judge patients as clinically unchanged or changed.\n\nResults: The mean change in six-minute walk distance in improved subjects was 50.0 m, compared to 4.0 m in unchanged subjects and a reduction of 64.3 m in those classified
as worse (p < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated a cut-off value for meaningful change of 30.5 m (area under the Geneticin curve 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.81-0.98) whilst the standard error of the mean method indicated a value of 33 m. Similar values were obtained when only subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were included (29 and 34 m,
respectively).\n\nConclusions: Small differences in six-minute walk distance, in the range 29-34 m, may be clinically significant for people with diffuse parenchymal lung disease. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Many woman have low back pain and sacral pain during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. The pain is most often caused by mechanical compression of the soft tissues and ligaments in the pelvis. It is rare for a sacral fracture to cause pain during pregnancy or immediately after birth. Few cases of sacral fracture in the postpartum period have been reported to date. Here, we describe the imaging features of a sacral fracture Blebbistatin associated with radicular symptoms in a woman who had just delivered her first child.”
“The expression of genes encoding serotonin receptors and serotonin transporter in emotiogenic structures of rat brain was shown to change after chronic stress
with ultrasonic waves of varying frequencies. A QPCR-RT study revealed the increased expression of genes for SERT and 5-HT1B receptor and decreased expression of the 5-HT2A receptor in the prefrontal see more cortex of rats after chronic exposure to ultrasonic waves of varying frequencies. Gene expression was increased for SERT, but decreased for 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2B receptors in the midbrain of animals. The hippocampus was characterized by an increased expression of genes encoding SERT and 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2B receptors. Our results indicate that the exposure to this type of stress is followed by dysregulation in the serotoninergic system of the brain.”
“The N K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the purine-containing nucleotide, guanosine 5′-monophosphate (GMP), in aqueous solution are measured under various pH conditions. The spectra show characteristic peaks, which originate from resonant excitations of N 1s electrons to pi* orbitals inside the guanine moiety of GMP. The relative intensities of these peaks depend on the pH values of the solution.
“The complete mitochondrial genome was obtained from the assembled genome data sequenced by next generation sequencing (NGS) technology from the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus. The mitochondrial genome of B. koreanus was composed of two circular chromosomes designated as mtDNA-I (10,421 bp) and mtDNA-II (11,923 bp). The gene contents of B. koreanus were identical with previously reported B. plicatilis mitochondrial genomes. However, gene orders of B. koreanus showed one rearrangement between the two species. Of 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 3 genes (ATP6, ND1, and ND3) had an incomplete stop codon. The A + T base composition of B. koreanus mitochondrial
genome was high (68.81%). They also showed anti-G bias (12.03% and 10.97%) on the second and third position of PCGs as well as slight AZD7762 purchase anti-C bias (15.96% and 14.31%) on the first and third position of PCGs.”
“Background: There is a large and growing body of evidence that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening programs are cost effective, but such screening represents a significant cost burden for hospitals. This study investigates the clinical, patient experience and cost impacts of performing active surveillance on known methicillin-resistant S aureus positive (MRSA+) patients admitted
to 7 medical-surgical units of a large regional hospital, specifically to allow discontinuation of contact isolation. Methods: Selleckchem Staurosporine We conducted mixed-methods retrospective evaluation of a process improvement project that screened admitted patients with known MRSA+ status for continued MRSA colonization. Results: Of those eligible patients on our institution’s MRSA+ list who did complete testing, 80.2% (130/162) were found to be no longer colonized, and only 19.8% (32/162) were still colonized. Forty-one
percent ERK inhibitor (13/32) of interviewed patients in contact isolation for MRSA reported that isolation had affected their hospital stay, and 28% (9/32) of patients reported emotional distress resulting from their isolation. Total cost savings of the program are estimated at $101,230 per year across the 7 study units. Conclusion: Our findings provide supporting evidence that a screening program targeting patients with a history of MRSA who would otherwise be placed in isolation has the potential to improve outcomes and patient experience and reduce costs. Copyright (C) 2014 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background Concerns have emerged about the adverse effect of phthalates on human health. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the association between di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure and atopic dermatitis (AD) in Korean children, focusing on the potential dose-response relationship. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted from May to October 2012.
\n\nResults One hundred and twenty students met our case definition of college misconduct, with an estimated OR of 5.28 (95% CI 1.92 to 14.48) associated with precollege misconduct revealed on the college application. However, only 3.3% (95% CI 1.0% to 8.0%) of college seniors engaging in college misconduct
had reported SNX-5422 nmr precollege criminal behaviours on their applications and 8.5% (95% CI 2.4% to 20.4%) of applicants with a criminal history engaged in misconduct during college.\n\nDiscussion Though precollege behaviour is a risk factor for college misconduct, screening questions on the application are not adequate to detect which students will engage in college misconduct. This pilot work would benefit from replication to determine the utility of criminal background investigations as part of admissions.”
“The aim of this study was evaluation of stability of immobilized phospholipase A(2) (PLA2) for soybean oil degumming. Also, the effect of reaction time on residual phosphorus levels was investigated according to the optimum pH and temperature. The free PLA2 and three immobilized PLA2 demonstrated significant differences in optimum operation conditions. pH, temperature PLX4032 and reaction time increased upon immobilization
for three different immobilized PLA2 (PLA2-CA, PLA2-CAC and PLA2-CAG). Immobilized PLA2 showed enhanced thermal stability and retained more than 74% of relative activity after 1 h of incubation at 60 degrees C, while
the free PLA2 retained only 33%. LY2835219 The three immobilized PLA2 retained 30% to 60% of initial activities after 7 recycles. In particular, PLA2-CAC has more significant profiles in pH, temperature, reaction time and showed the highest remaining activity, thermal stability, reusability. Therefore, PLA2-CAC is a suitable immobilized enzyme for soybean oil degumming process.”
“Objective: To determine the antibiogram of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in patients with diabetes. Methods: The study was carried out in the Microbiology Department of Clinical and Research Laboratory, Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology (BIDE) from January 2012 to December 2012. All samples received in the laboratory were processed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was done and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined by disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 585 pathogens were isolated from 542 specimens of patients with diabetes. One hundred twenty one (20.68%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 25(4.27%) non-aeruginosa Pseudomonas were detected from 542 samples. Among 108 (18%) samples detecting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were found in 42 (39%) samples.
Higher GNF was related to greater functional well-being (p < .01) irrespective of estimated premorbid IQ\n\nConclusion: The finding that
higher premorbid cognitive ability buffers the effect of neuropsychological impairment on emotional well-being after brain tumour advances understanding of the role of cognitive reserve in adjustment to neurological disorders. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming increasingly popular and official routines or self-programmed functions have been included in many statistical software. In this article, we review the statistical methods and the related software for multivariate meta-analysis.
Emphasis is placed on Bayesian methods using Markov chain Monte Carlo, and codes in WinBUGS are provided. The various model-fitting options are illustrated U0126 nmr in two examples and specific guidance is provided on how to run a multivariate meta-analysis using various software packages.”
“WO3-mediated photocatalytic oxidation is achievable selleck products in the presence of electron acceptors as an alternative to O-2 or co-catalysts enabling O-2 reduction pathway. This study suggests the combination with Fenton-like reagent (Fe(III)/H2O2) as a strategy to improve the photocatalytic activity of WO3. Under neutral pH condition where Fe(III) is present as iron oxide precipitate, photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) proceeded 3-fold faster in the WO3/Fe(III)/H2O2 system relative to the WO3/H2O2 system, while no noticeable oxidation occurred in the systems of Fe(III)/H2O2, WO3, and WO3/Fe(III).
Such efficacy increase at circumneutral pH was observed in photocatalytic oxidation of diverse organics including phenol, bisphenol A, acetaminophen, and carbamazepine. Compatible with the pH dependence of photocatalytic activity of the WO3/Fe(III)/H2O2 system, hydroxylation of benzoic acid and coumarin as indirect indication for OH radical production was drastically retarded with increasing pH. The pH effect indicates that OH radical as primary oxidant may be responsible for the kinetic enhancement in the WO3/Fe(III)/H2O2 system. In that platinum deposits or Nafion layers as physical barriers possibly inhibit surface Fe(III) precipitation, GS 1101 use of platinized or Nafion-coated WO3 caused the negligible photocatalytic improvement in the ternary system. Effective oxidative degradation in the presence of the UV cut-off filter corroborated visible light activation of the WO3/Fe(III)/H2O2 system. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The scattered tree layer that defines savannas is important for structuring the understory community and determining patterns of overstory recruitment. However, encroachment by woody plants has altered overstory tree densities and regeneration dynamics.
Specifically, a fascinating possibility is to support or to inhibit NGF receptors, in order to prevent negative cardiac remodeling after MI and consequent ventricular dysfunction.”
“Despite the evolutionary, ecological and economic importance of introgression find more between a domesticated species and its wild relatives in centers of diversity and domestication, the role of traditional farmers in this process has received limited attention. In the Yucatan
Peninsula, the region of Mexico that has the greatest amount of domesticated varieties of Lima bean, wild populations grow sympatrically with conspecific varieties, allowing the Mayan farmer to act directly on introgressed seed. We used 11 microsatellite loci to assess levels of introgression in three wild-domesticated complexes of Lima bean from the Yucatan Peninsula and analyze its impact on the genetic diversity of this crop. structure and InStruct analyses showed similar results. The Instruct
analysis indicated that the complex with the lowest level of introgression was one where BI-2536 the farmer actively selected against wild plants and introgressed seed. In contrast, the complex with the highest level of introgression was one where the farmer has been consciously selecting a weedy morphotype for 15 years and has already incorporated it into his diet. Genetic diversity of the domesticated pool was higher in the complex with the higher level of introgression. This study showed that farmers have an important role in limiting or favoring the wild to crop introgression and influencing the levels of genetic diversity in their domesticated pool. Only when traditional farmers’ knowledge is taken into account can we correctly understand the dynamics, generation and maintenance of genetic diversity of the landraces VX-689 price in
the centers of diversity and domestication.”
“A comparative, temperature-dependent (80-500K at 5K intervals), micro-Raman spectroscopic study of 300 and 50nm diameter ceramic BaTiO3 nanoparticles was carried out with the purpose of elucidating the nanoparticle size effect on the temperature dependence of the polar and non-polar phonons. A method for calibrating Raman intensities, along with an iterative spectral fitting algorithm, is proposed for concurrent Raman band position and intensity analysis, increasing the analytical abilities of single temperature point Raman spectroscopy. The 300nm particles exhibit all three phase transitions, whereas the 50nm particles do not show evidence of these phase transitions in the same temperature range. The Curie temperature appears to be a phonon converging point, irrespective of the phonon symmetry. An attempt was made to qualitatively relate the temperature-dependent Raman spectra to complimentary non-spectroscopic methods, such as heat capacity and X-ray diffraction studies.
A total of 12 functional guilds were observed
in the samples. The cp-1 functional guilds were dominant in the greenhouse, whereas cp-3 functional guilds were dominant in the farmland. The soil nematode populations, trophic groups, AZD8186 in vivo and functional guilds reflected the differences between the greenhouse and the farmland land use systems. Although soil fertility parameters, except available P, in the greenhouse were higher (p smaller than 0.001), the biodiversity was lower than in the farmland (p smaller than 0.05). Nematode ecological indices, such as the Shannon index, modified maturity index, and enrichment index were sensitive for differentiating between the greenhouse and farmland ecosystems.”
“Re-excision rates after breast conserving surgery (BCS) of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) are high.
Preoperative breast MRI has the potential to reduce re-excision rates, but may lead to an increased rate of mastectomies. Hence, we assessed the influence of preoperative breast MRI on the re-excision rate and the rate of mastectomies. We performed a retrospective cohort study of a consecutive series of patients with ILC who presented in one of two dedicated tertiary cancer centers between 1993 and 2005. We assessed the initial type of surgery (BCS or mastectomy), the re-excision rate and the final type of surgery. Patients were stratified into two groups: those who received preoperative MRI (MR+ group) and those who did not (MR- group). In the MR- group, 27% of the patients underwent a re-excision after initial BCS. In the MR+ group, this rate was significantly selleck kinase inhibitor lower at 9%. The odds ratio was 3.64 (95% CI: 1.30-10.20, P = 0.010). There was a trend towards a lower final mastectomy rate in the MR+ group compared to the MR- group (48 vs. 59%, P = 0.098). In conclusion, preoperative MRI in patients with buy Sotrastaurin ILC can reduce re-excision rates without increasing the rate of mastectomies.”
“We evaluated the effects of 2 commonly available strategies (plant stanol ester drink and 10 mg simvastatin) on coronary heart disease (CHID) risk variables in participants
with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome patients are at increased risk to develop CHD, partly due to high triacylglycerol (TAG) and low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and a low-grade inflammatory profile. Effects of plant stanol esters on TAG concentrations in these participants are unknown. After a 3-wk run-in period in which individuals consumed placebo yogurt drinks and placebo capsules, participants were randomly divided into 4 groups: placebo (n = 9), simvastatin + placebo drink (n = 10), placebo + stanol drink (n = 9), and simvastatin + stanol drink (n = 8). After 9 wk, we evaluated the effects on serum lipids, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction markers. In metabolic syndrome patients, stanol esters (2.
Tachyarrhythmia combined with atrial
fibrillation was a risk factor for treatment failure with sotalol (odds ratio, 18.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-189.6; p=0.0053).\n\nConclusion Sotalol is partially or completely effective for refractory tachyarrhythmias in patients with CHD, and non-pharmacological interventions improve the efficacy of sotalol. This multimodal approach should be considered in patients with refractory tachyarrhythmias DMH1 purchase and CHD. (Circ J 2008:72: 1998-2003)”
“Uterine leiomyomas are the most common tumors in the human female pelvis and the leading indication for pelvic surgery. Lack of understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of leiomyoma has put severe limitations on the availability of alternative treatments. Using an oligonucleotide micro-array-based MLN4924 purchase hybridisation analysis we observed a group of genes with a broad range of functional activity differentially expressed in smooth muscle cells (SMC) derived from leiomyomas when compared to matched myometrial cells. Among them, two IFN alpha inducible genes, TRAIL and IFI27,
were underexpressed in leiomyoma vs. myometrial cells. Expression levels of TRAIL and IFI27 were also measured in myometrial and leiomyoma cells by real-time quantitative PCR in basal condition and after IFNa stimulation. In both cell types, the transcription of the two genes resulted induced by IFN alpha but the IFI27 transcription stimulation was weaker
in leiomyoma than myometrial cells whereas the TRAIL transcription stimulation resulted stronger in leiomyoma respect myometrial cells. Based on this finding and on previous observations we have hypothesized that a reduced response to IFN alpha stimulation might be involved in leiomyoma formation and growth.”
“Taylor’s power law, i.e. that the slope for the increase in variance with mean population size is between 1 and 2 at a logarithmic scale, provides one of the few quantitative relationships in population ecology, yet the underlying ecological mechanisms are only poorly understood. Stochastic theory of population dynamics predicts that demographic Evofosfamide and environmental stochasticity will affect the slope differently. In a stable environment under the influence of demographic stochasticity alone the slope will be equal to 1. In large populations in which demographic variance will have a negligible effect on the dynamics the slope will approach 2. In addition, the slope will also be influenced by how the strength of density dependence is related to mean population size. To disentangle the relative contribution of these processes we estimate the mean-variance relationship for a large number of populations of British birds. The variance in population size of most species decreased with the mean due to decreased influence of demographic stochasticity at larger population sizes.
21) to 65 (FIO(2) = 0.5) to 140 s (FIO(2) = 1.0).\n\nConclusions: Findings from this swine hemorrhagic shock model confirm that FIO(2) and the level of hemorrhagic shock, but not fluid resuscitation, influence the rate of apneic desaturation. A five-fold increase in time until critical oxygen desaturation occurs can be achieved when preoxygenating with 100% oxygen compared with room air, underscoring the importance of adequate preoxygenation
before emergent airway management.”
“Treatment with sigma1 receptor (Sigma1) ligands can inhibit cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. However, the cellular pathways engaged in response to Sigma1 ligand treatment that contribute to these outcomes remain largely undefined. Here, we show that treatment with putative antagonists buy PF-00299804 of Sigma1 decreases cell mass. This effect corresponds with repressed Bafilomycin A1 mouse cap-dependent translation initiation in multiple breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Sigma1 antagonist treatment suppresses phosphorylation of translational regulator proteins p70S6K, 56, and 4E-BP1. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Sigma1 also results in translational repression, consistent with the effects of antagonist treatment. Sigma1 antagonist mediated
translational repression and decreased cell size are both reversible. Together, these data reveal a role for Sigma1 in tumor cell protein synthesis, and demonstrate that small molecule Sigma1 ligands can be used as modulators of protein translation. (c) 2012 Elsevier selleck Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinases (CaMKKs) phosphorylate and activate specific downstream protein kinases, including CaMKI, CaMKIV, and 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase, which mediates a variety of Ca2+ signaling cascades. CaMKKs have been shown to undergo autophosphorylation, although their role in enzymatic regulation remains unclear. Here, we found that CaMKK alpha and beta isoforms expressed in nonstimulated transfected COS-7 cells, as well as recombinant CaMKKs expressed in and purified
from Escherichia coli, were phosphorylated at Thr residues. Introduction of a kinase-dead mutation completely impaired the Thr phosphorylation of these recombinant CaMKK isoforms. In addition, wild-type recombinant CaMKKs were unable to transphosphorylate the kinase-dead mutants, suggesting that CaMKK isoforms undergo Ca2+/CaM-independent autophosphorylation in an intramolecular manner. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis identified Thr(482) in the autoinhibitory domain as one of the autophosphorylation sites in GaMKK beta, but phosphorylation of the equivalent Thr residue (Thr(446)) in the alpha isoforrn was not observed. Unlike CaMKK alpha that has high Ca2+/CaM-dependent activity, wild-type CaMKK beta displays enhanced autonomous activity (Ca2+/CaM-independent activity, 71% of total activity).
The elevated glutamate and nitric oxide levels were maintained during the secondary process but however with concomitant loss of mitochondrial function. Repeated ketamine administration reversed glutamate levels only in the cerebral cortex, where as nitric oxide was decreased
in all the brain regions. However, repeated ketamine administration was unable to reverse anoxia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The failure of glutamate antagonism in the treatment of asphyxia may be due to persistence of mitochondrial dysfunction. Selleckchem GSK126 Therefore, additionally targeting mitochondrial function may prove to be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of asphyxia. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Mutations in multiple planar cell polarity (PCP) genes can cause swirling
patterns indicated by whorls and tufts of hairs in the wings and the abdomen of Drosophila and in the skin of vertebrates. Damaged global directional Cue caused by mutations in four-jointed,fat, and dachsous, impaired cellular hexagonal packing caused by mutations in frizzled, or weakened intracellular signaling caused by mutations in disheveled, inturned, and prickle all make hair patterns globally irregular Selleck Blebbistatin yet locally aligned, and in sonic cases, typically swirling. Why and how mutations in different genes all lead to swirling patterns is unexplored. Although the mechanisms of molecular signaling remain unclear, the features of molecular distribution are evident most PCP molecules develop the polarized distribution
in cells and this distribution can be induced by intercellular signaling. Does this suggest something fundamental ROCK inhibitor to swirling patterns beyond the particular functions of genes, proteins, and signaling? A simple model indeed indicates this. Disregarding detailed molecular interactions, the induced polarization of molecular distribution in an epithelial cell can be modeled as the induced polarization of positive and negative charge distribution in a dielectric molecule. Simulations reveal why and flow mutations in different genes all lead to swirling patterns, and in particular, the conditions for generating typical swirling patterns. The results show that the anisotropic propagation of polarized molecular distribution may be the common mechanism of swirling patterns Caused by different mutations. They also suggest that at the cell level, as at the molecular level, a simple mechanism can generate complex and diverse patterning phenotypes in different molecular contexts. The similarity between the induced polarization and its propagation in both the epithelial cells and the dielectric molecules also interestingly suggests some commonalities between pattern formation in the biological and physical systems. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
\n\nObjectives: We sought to create an early-onset mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced COPD that develops the hallmark features of the human condition in a short time-frame. We also sought to use this model to better understand pathogenesis and the roles of macrophages and mast cells (MCs) in patients with COPD.\n\nMethods: Tightly controlled amounts of cigarette smoke were delivered to the airways of mice, and the development of the pathologic features of COPD was assessed. The roles of macrophages and MC tryptase in pathogenesis were evaluated by using depletion and in vitro Selleckchem NSC 23766 studies and MC protease 6-deficient mice.\n\nResults: After just 8 weeks of smoke exposure, wild-type mice had
chronic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, airway remodeling, emphysema, and reduced lung function. These characteristic features Z-DEVD-FMK in vivo of COPD were glucocorticoid resistant and did not spontaneously resolve. Systemic effects on skeletal muscle and the heart and increased susceptibility to respiratory tract
infections also were observed. Macrophages and tryptase-expressing MCs were required for the development of COPD. Recombinant MC tryptase induced proinflammatory responses from cultured macrophages.\n\nConclusion: A short-term mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced COPD was developed in which the characteristic features of the disease were induced more rapidly than in existing models. The model can be used to better understand COPD pathogenesis, and we show a requirement for macrophages and tryptase-expressing MCs. (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013;131:752-62.)”
“Objective To assess current and intended future use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and characterise those attending sexual health clinics, the anticipated PrEP delivery setting.\n\nDesign Cross-sectional study.\n\nMethods Self-administered survey
of 842 HIV negative MSM recruited from social venues in London in 2011.\n\nResults One selleck chemicals in 10 (10.2%, 83/814, 95% CI 8.2% to 12.5%) and one in 50 (2.1%, 17/809, 95% CI 1.2% to 3.3%) reported having ever used post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and PrEP respectively. Half reported they would be likely to use PrEP if it became available as a daily pill (50.3%, 386/786, 95% CI 46.7% to 53.9%). MSM were more likely to consider future PrEP use if they were <35 years (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.57, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.14), had unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners (AOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.56), and had previously used PEP (AOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.24). Over half of MSM (54.8% 457/834 95% CI 51.3 to 58.2) attended a sexual health clinic the previous year. Independent factors associated with attendance were age <35 (AOR 2.29, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.13), and >= 10 anal sex partners in the last year (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.77 to 3.52).