Positive clones were confirmed by colony PCR using specific oligos. Mice handling Specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice (females, 6 weeks of age; Janvier, France) were maintained under normal husbandry conditions in the animal facilities of the National Institute of Agricultural Research (UEAR, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas,
France). All animal experiments began after allowing the animals 1 week for acclimation and were performed according to European Community rules of animal care and with authorization 78-149 of the French Veterinary Services. Detection of mInlA expression by L. lactis using flow cytometry analysis L. lactis NZ9000 and recombinant L. lactis expressing mInlA were centrifuged (5000 rpm), washed with phosphate Ivacaftor ic50 buffered saline (PBS) and then resuspended at a concentration of approximately 1×109 CFU/ml in 500 μl of PBS containing 0.5% of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 10 μg/mL of monoclonal
antibody anti-InlA kindly provided by Dr. Pascale Cossart (Cell Biology and Infection Department/Unité des Interactions Bactéries-Cellules, Pasteur Institute, Paris). After one hour incubation at 4°C, the bacteria were pelleted by centrifugation washed with PBS and then resuspended in 500 μl of PBS plus 0.5% of BSA containing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated AffiniPure Fab fragment Goat Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) (Jackson Immuno Research). After 1 h Selleckchem Rabusertib incubation at 4°C, bacteria were washed once more with PBS and fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde for 30 min at 4°C. FITC labeled antibody binding to InlA was assessed by flow cytometry (Accuri C6 Flow Cytometer®)
using excitation at 494 nm and emission in the range of 510-530 nm (FL1-A channel). Data analysis was performed using CFlow Software (Accuri Cytometers, Inc.). The result was expressed as the average of three independent experiments performed in triplicate. Invasion assay of bacteria into intestinal epithelial cells The human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 (ATCC number HTB37) derived from a colon carcinoma was used to measure invasion capacity of each strain. Caco-2 cells were cultured in RPMI medium containing 2 mM L-glutamine (EPZ5676 in vivo BioWhittaker, Cambrex Bio Science, Verviers, Belgium) and 10% fetal calf Morin Hydrate serum in p-24 plates (Corning Glass Works) until they reached 70-80% confluence. In the assays on non-confluent Caco-2 cells, approximately 4×105 cells were present in each p-24 well. Bacterial strains were grown to an OD600 of 0.9–1.0, pelleted and washed in PBS, then added to the Caco-2 cell cultures at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of approximately 1000 bacteria per eukaryotic cell. The gentamicin survival assay was used to evaluate bacteria survival. In summary, recombinant or wild type L. lactis were applied in the apical side of eukaryotic cells and co-incubated during one hour at 37°C, in 5% CO2.