During consolidation, which can last from minutes to hours, this memory is moved from a labile to a more fixed state. During retrieval, the animal is returned to the conditioning context, where memory for the context-shock association is assessed (Abel and Lattal, 2001). The results of the present investigation showed that a single administration of PEBT (10 mg/kg, p.o.), SP600125 1 h before training of step-down inhibitory avoidance task, increased the step-through latency. In other words, PEBT improved the acquisition of memory in mice. Furthermore, the effect of post-training administration of PEBT on the consolidation
process was evaluated. In memory studies, where drugs are administered after, not before training, the drug’s effects can be attributed to influences in the consolidation of memory, a process which takes place immediately after the training experience and lasts for few hours [for a review see (McGaugh, 1989 and Castellano et al., 2001)]. PEBT (10 mg/kg, p.o.) administered immediately after training enhanced memory consolidation due to the increase in the step-through latency. Pre-test administration of drugs may affect retrieval process which implies the selleck screening library reactivation of memories and variety of factors can modify
retrieval at the time of testing (McGaugh, 2000). In the present study, pre-test administration of PEBT (10 mg/kg, p.o.) improved retrieval of memory in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. By contrast, 5 mg/kg dose of PEBT did not improve acquisition, consolidation or retrieval. Moreover, it is important to mention that PEBT did not cause impairment in the locomotor activity and exploratory behavior of mice assessed by the open-field test. Based upon PEBT effect on cognitive enhancement in mice and considering the facilitatory effect of the glutamatergic system on the memory of various tasks, we investigated the possible involvement of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the PEBT action. many The amino acid glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, is known to play important roles in several physiological processes, such as cognition and neural plasticity
of synaptic connections (Meldrum, 2000 and Mattson, 2008). Our results demonstrated that PEBT at the dose of 10 mg/kg inhibited [3H]glutamate uptake, but not [3H]glutamate release, in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice. Accordingly, diphenyl diselenide and diphenyl ditelluride, organochalcogen compounds, did not alter [3H]glutamate release by rat brain synaptosomes in vivo ( Nogueira et al., 2002). Therefore, the [3H]glutamate uptake seems to be related, at least in part, to the mechanisms by which PEBT induces cognitive enhancement in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task in mice. These findings are consistent with those reported by different research groups ( Daisley et al., 1998, Lhullier et al., 2004 and Mameli et al.