During year 4, mean [standard
deviation (SD)] height velocity was 6.4 (1.4) and 4.4 (1.2) cm/year (p = 0.001) and height velocity SD score (SDS) was 0.3 (0.3) and -0.1 (0.2) (p = 0.002) in the 57 and 35 mu g/kg/day groups, respectively. PHA-739358 research buy The 57 mu g/kg/day group continued with catch-up growth, had a significantly higher mean weight gain (p = 0.015) and significantly higher insulin-like growth factor-I levels at 12 months (p = 0.038). Five treatment-emergent adverse events were reported; none was serious or caused study withdrawal. Conclusions: Children who continued receiving 57 mu g/kg/day r-hGH in year 4 had significantly greater height gain than those receiving 35 mu g/kg/day r-hGH. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“BACKGROUND: While the incidence of venous thromboembolism increases with age, little is known about its contemporary management or outcomes in older patients. Our goal was to compare the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes associated with venous thromboembolism, LY294002 price in patients aged 65-69 years, 70-74 years, 75-79 years, and 80+ years. METHODS/PARTICIPANTS: We prospectively followed 542 subjects aged bigger than = 65 years with venous thromboembolism from
January 2008 through August 2011 at 6 sites. In addition, a retrospective study of 681 additional subjects aged bigger than = 65 years with venous thromboembolism diagnosed in 2007 and 2009 was conducted at the same 6 sites. RESULTS: With advancing age, patients were more likely to suffer provoked venous thromboembolism but less likely to present with pulmonary embolism. Patients with unprovoked, provoked, or malignancy associated venous thromboembolism received warfarin for a median of 401 days, 203 days, and 529 days, respectively. Age bigger than = 80 years was not associated with an increased risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism,
but there was an increased risk of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: With advancing age, patients are more likely to suffer hospital-associated and provoked venous thromboembolism. Many elderly patients with provoked PLX3397 nmr or unprovoked venous thromboembolism were treated for bigger than 3 months or bigger than 12 months, respectively. Given that advanced age was not associated with increased risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism, but elderly patients in general have a higher risk of bleeding from continued anticoagulant therapy, such practice is potentially harmful. At the same time, such an argument could be used to more vigorously offer prophylaxis in the first place. (c) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
By means of pronase E treatment, we found that the binding was mainly associated to a protein Poziotinib component of the myelin. Myelinated peripheral nerve fibres were also stained by epsilon-toxin. Moreover, the binding to myelin was not only restricted to rodents, but was also found in humans, sheep and cattle. Curiously,
in the brains of both sheep and cattle, the toxin strongly stained the vascular endothelium, a result that may explain the differences in potency and effect between species. Although the binding of epsilon-toxin to myelin does not directly explain its neurotoxic effect, this feature opens up a
of enquiry into its mechanism of toxicity and establishes the usefulness of this toxin for the study of the mammalian nervous system. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
are crucial molecules mediating cell-cell interactions between somatic and germline cells in insect and mammalian male and female gonads. We analysed the presence and localization of cadherins in ovaries of honeybee queens and in testes of drones. Transcripts representing two classical cadherins, E-cadherin (shotgun) and N-cadherin, as well as three protocadherins (Starry night, Fat and Fat-like) were detected in gonads of both sexes. Pan-cadherin antibodies, which most probably detect a honeybee N-cadherin, were used in immunolocalization analyses. In the germarium of ovarioles, cadherin-IR (cadherin immunoreactivity) was evidenced as homogeneously distributed in the cytoplasm and as selleck products nuclear foci, in both germline and somatic cells. It was also detected in polyfusomes and ring canals. In testiolar tubules, cadherin-IR showed a cytoplasmic and nuclear distributon alike in ovaries. The unexpected nuclear localization and cytoplasmic distribution in
ovaries and testes were corroborated by immunogold electron microscopy, which revealed cadherin aggregates associated with electron-dense nuclear structures. With respect to cadherin localization, the honeybee differs from Drosophila, the model for gametogenesis in https://www.selleckchem.com/products/mrt67307.html insects, raising the question as to how differences among solitary and social species may be built into and generated from the general architecture of polytrophic meroistic ovaries. It also indicates the possibility of divergent roles for cadherin in the functional architecture of insect gonads, in general, especially in taxa with high reproductive output.”
“Background: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography is a new method for non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis.\n\nAim: To evaluate the impact of elevated alanine aminotransferase levels on liver stiffness assessment by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography.\n\nMethods: A multicentre retrospective study including 1242 patients with chronic liver disease, who underwent liver biopsy and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse. Transient Elastography was also performed in 512 patients.
“Background/Purpose: The aims of our study were to: (1) develop the Disability Grading Decision Support System (DGDSS) and to (2) compare the new International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)-based disability determination tool (ICF-DDT) with the diagnosis-based disability determination tool (D-DDT).\n\nMethods: A total of 9357 patients recruited
from 236 accredited institutions Stem Cell Compound Library were evaluated using the ICF-DDT and the D-DDT, and the presence, severity, and category of the disability identified using the two determination tools were compared. In the DGDSS, the ICF-DDT consisted of four models comprising nine modules to determine the presence and the severity of the disability. The differences between models (modules) are the different combinations BLZ945 mouse of World Health
Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) and Scale of Body Functions and Structures.\n\nResults: Compared with the D-DDT, more patients were determined to be disability-free when using the ICF-DDT. Module 1-1 had the highest profoundly severe rate, and module 2-2 had the highest mild and moderate disability rates. Module 2-1 had the highest severe disability rate. Module 1-1 resulted in the smallest difference, and module 3-1 resulted in the largest difference, compared with the D-DDT. Feedback from users suggested that the DGDSS is a robust system if the original data are accurate.\n\nConclusion: The presence, severity, and category of the disability Navitoclax price determined using the ICF-DDT and the D-DDT were significantly different. The results of the DGDSS provide information for policymakers
to determine the optimal allocation of social welfare and medical resources for people with disabilities. Copyright (c) 2013, Elsevier Taiwan LLC & Formosan Medical Association. All rights reserved.”
“Background and Purpose: The safety and efficacy of treating serious infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus with daptomycin in a Taiwanese population were studied.\n\nMethods: A retrospective, multicenter study was performed in Taiwan between December 2007 and June 2009. This study included adult hospitalized patients who had received intravenous daptomycin therapy for infections caused by S aureus. All patients were followed until discharge from the hospital or death.\n\nResults: A total of 52 patients (males, n = 44; median age: 62 years) were evaluated. Infections included complicated skin and soft-tissue infections (n = 14), catheter-related bacteremia (n = 14), osteomyelitis and septic arthritis (n = 12), endovascular infections and endocarditis (n = 11), and urinary tract infections (n = 1). Overall, 47 (90.4%) patients were successfully treated and their clinical symptoms were resolved.
This review discusses the efficacy of the AIs in improving DDFS in the different adjuvant settings and explores whether significant improvements in DDFS correlate with meaningful improvements in OS or breast cancer-associated mortality. Significant DDFS improvement may be a Tariquidar mouse quicker, better end point in clinical trials, leading to a more efficient, faster assessment of treatment efficacy.”
“Two strains of Arcobacter butzleri, ATCC 49616 and an
environmental isolate, became nonculturable in seawater microcosms at 4 C by 20 days and at room temperature by 14 days. Nonculturable cells were viable for up to 270 days of incubation in microcosms. Resuscitation of A. butzleri cells from microcosms at both temperatures was achieved 9 days after nutrient addition.”
“For the efficient stimulation of T cells by tumor Ag, tumor-derived material has to be presented by dendritic cells (DC). This very likely involves the uptake of dead tumor cells by DC. Cell death in tumors often occurs through
apoptosis, but necrotic cell death may also be prevalent. This distinction is relevant because numerous studies have proposed that apoptotic cells have immunosuppressive effects while necrosis may be stimulatory. However, a system has been lacking that would allow the induction of apoptosis or necrosis without side effects by the death stimuli used experimentally. In this study, we present such a system
and test its effects on immune cells in vitro. B16 mouse melanoma cells CCI-779 ic50 were generated and underwent cell death through the doxycycline-inducible induction of death proteins. In one cell line, the induction of Bim(S), induced rapid apoptosis, in the other line the induction of the FADD death domain induced nonapoptotic/necrotic cell death. Bim(S)-induced apoptosis was associated with the typical morphological and biochemical changes. FADD death domain induced necrosis occurred through a distinct pathway involving RIP1 and the loss of membrane integrity in the absence of apoptotic changes. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were taken up with comparable efficiency by DC. OVA expressed in cells dying by either apoptosis or necrosis was cross-presented to OT-1 T cells and induced their SN-38 research buy proliferation. These results argue that it is not the form of cell death but its circumstances that decide the question whether cell death leads to a productive T cell response. The Journal of Immunology, 2009, 182: 4538-4546.”
“Objectives: We investigated the outcomes of reinforcing anastomotic sites using (1) non biodegradable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) felt, (2) biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA) felt, and (3) PGA felt with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in a canine descending thoracic aortic replacement model.
\n\nMethods and Results: Rats were selleck chemical injected with NaHS (an H2S donor, 2-200 mu mol.kg(-1).day(-1), i.p.) or saline for 3 weeks. MBP was measured with a tail-cuff method. C erebral arterioles were isolated and cannulated
in an organ bath system, and vessel diameters were measured with an image-shearing device. Changes in diameter in response to stepwise increases in intravascular pressure (20-120 mmHg) were investigated under no-flow conditions. After the treatments, plasma H2S increased and MBP decreased significantly. NaHS reduced the myogenic response in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was markedly attenuated by glibenclamide, a K-ATP channel blocker. Blockade of nitric oxide (NO) production with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor) enhanced,
whereas removal of the endothelium abolished the inhibitory role of NaHS on the myogenic response.\n\nConclusions: For the first time it has been demonstrated that H2S decreases the myogenic response of cerebral arterioles in vivo, and this effect is BMS-754807 cell line endothelium-dependent and partially mediated by K-ATP channels. (Circ J 2012; 76: 1012 1019)”
“BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcriptional regulators of cholesterol metabolism, controlling cholesterol flow into cells, catabolism, and efflux. Cholesterol controls cell proliferation; disruptions in cholesterol metabolism have been associated with the development of colon cancer. We investigated whether expression of activated LXR protects against intestinal tumorigenesis in mice. METHODS: We analyzed the development of colon cancer in mice that express a constitutive active form of LXR alpha only in the intestinal epithelium, under the control of villin promoter (iVP16LXR alpha). These mice were crossed with adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc)(min/+) mice,
or given azoxymethane followed by dextran sodium sulfate, to assess intestinal tumor formation. We also assessed proliferation and apoptosis of a human GDC0032 colorectal cancer cell line (HT29) transfected with an adenoviral vector that expressed Ad VP16hLXR alpha, compared with cells expressing AdVP16 (control), and their ability to form xenograft tumors in mice. HT29 cells also were incubated with the LXR ligand GW3965. RESULTS: In human colorectal cancer cells, ligand-induced activation of LXR or transfection with Ad VP16hLXR alpha blocked the G1 phase, increased caspase-dependent apoptosis, and slowed growth of xenograft tumors in mice. iVP16LXR alpha mice formed fewer, smaller tumors than VP16 (control) mice after administration of azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. APC(min/+)/iVP16LXR alpha mice also developed fewer, smaller intestinal tumors than APC(min/+)/iVP16 mice.
Our secondary analyses suggest that even shorter CR Etomoxir clinical trial programs may
translate into improved long-term outcomes, although these results need to be confirmed in an RCT. (Am Heart J 2011;162:571-584.e2.)”
“Several compounds that promote activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) glycine site have been proposed as treatments for schizophrenia, but the impact of these Putative antipsychotics on anxiety remains unclear. In this study, we employed genetic and pharmacological mouse models of altered NMDAR glycine site function to examine the effects of these proposed treatments in unconditioned tests of anxiety. In the elevated plus-maze, open field, and novel object test, homozygous Grin 1(D481N) mutant mice that have a five-fold reduction in NMDAR glycine affinity demonstrated all anxiolytic-like phenotype. GW4869 In contrast, D-serine, a direct activator of the NMDAR glycine site, and ALX-5407, a glycine transporter-1 (GlyT- 1) inhibitor, enhanced anxiety-like behaviors in wild-type and Grin 1(D481N) mutant animals. Homozygous Dao 1(G181R) mutant mice that lack function of the D-serine catabolic enzyme, D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), displayed an elevation in anxiety. Deficient DAO activity also reversed the anxiolytic effects of diminished NMDAR function in mice carrying both the homozygous Grin 1(D481N) and Dao 1(G181R) mutation.
Thus, a direct agonist of the NMDAR glycine site, a GlyT-1 inhibitor, and suppression of DAO function induced anxiogenic-like behaviors. Consequently, application of these treatments for amelioration of schizophrenic symptoms necessitates caution as all enhancement of comorbid anxiety disorders may result. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The prognostic value of histologic grade (HG) in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) remains uncertain, and most ILC tumors are graded learn more as HG2. Genomic grade (GG) is a 97-gene signature that improves the prognostic value of HG. This study evaluates whether GG may overcome the
limitations of HG in ILC.\n\nGene expression data were generated from frozen tumor samples, and GG calculated according to the expression of 97 genes. The prognostic value of GG was assessed in a stratified Cox regression model for invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) and overall survival (OS).\n\nA total of 166 patients were classified by GG. HG classified 33 (20%) tumors as HG1, 120 (73%) as HG2 and 12 (7%) as HG3. GG classified 106 (64%) tumors as GG low (GG1), 29 (17%) as GG high (GG3) and 31 (19%) as equivocal (cases not classified as GG1 or GG3). The median follow-up time was 6.5 years. In multivariate analyses, GG was associated with IDFS [HRGG3 vs GG1 5.6 (2.1-15.3); P < 0.001] and OS [HRGG3 vs GG1 7.2, 95% CI (1.6-32.2); P = 0.01].\n\nGG outperformed HG in ILC and added prognostic value to classic clinicopathologic variables, including nodal status.
Paradoxically, although they hesitate to assert their autonomy, they are also unwilling to surrender that autonomy to their parents even under coercion or intimidation. Parents tend to underestimate their adolescents’ preferences for making autonomous decisions and overestimate the importance of parental authority in decision-making.\n\nConclusion: ’14-and-above’ Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong perceive themselves as
capable of autonomous decision-making in medically-related matters, but hesitate to assert their autonomy, probably because of the Confucian values of parental authority and filial piety that are deeply embedded in the local culture.”
“In PF-04929113 ic50 recent years there has been an important change regarding the thrombotic risk estimation of patients with liver cirrhosis, underestimated in the past in favor of the hemorrhagic risk. The appearance of the hepatocarcinoma in the chronic liver diseases evolution increases the thrombotic risk of the patients. We have created a retrospective, multicentric clinical study, including 215 consecutive patients hospitalized in 3 university sites from Transylvania. We have analyzed the complete
blood panel parameters, coagulation tests, the thrombotic risk score and the thrombotic and hemorrhagic events of the patients. Over a third of the patients presented thrombosis. The mean platelet selleck compound volume and the other platelet parameters do not correlate with thrombotic events. The number of platelets correlates directly with the thrombotic risk score. The results are analyzed in the light of the physiopathologic disturbances induced to these patients.”
“Background. Pre-existing immunity in individuals is a determinant condition for epidemic dynamics. During the current influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic, cross-reactivity of seasonal vaccines from the last years Rigosertib ic50 and previous contact with seasonal influenza viruses was suggested as the cause
of low severity and low incidence of the disease in persons aged 50-65 years and with history of seasonal influenza vaccination.\n\nMethods. We performed a detailed search and analysis of 74 previously reported H1 epitopes present in influenza A virus contained in seasonal vaccines applied in Mexico from 2004 to date and in sequences from Mexican isolates from 2003, as well as in the recent influenza A (H1N1) 2009, and calculated the epitope conservation among vaccine, seasonal and pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus.\n\nResults. H1 epitope sequence identity ranged from 61.53-100 %. Of the 74 epitopes previously reported, 31 (41.9%) were completely conserved among all sequences analyzed in this study, whereas 43 (58.1%) had changes in one or more amino acids.\n\nConclusions. Our findings contribute to the estimatation of the degree of epitope conservation among HI from vaccine virus strains as well as in the different viruses that circulate in the Mexican population.
10 mm (interquartile range [IQR], 1.29-2.37) and 4.13 (IQR, 3.11-7.39) (p < 0.001).\n\nInattentional blindness was evident in both groups. Although more accurate, the AR group was less likely to identify significant unexpected findings clearly within view. Advanced navigational displays may increase precision, but strategies to mitigate attentional costs need further investigation to allow safe implementation.”
“Objective: To determine whether the routine use of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) in “good prognosis” women improves in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle outcome.\n\nDesign:
Randomized, controlled, prospective clinical study.\n\nSetting: Private infertility clinic.\n\nPatient(s): Infertile women predicted to have a good prognosis as defined by: age < 39 www.selleckchem.com/products/EX-527.html years, normal ovarian reserve, body mass index < 30 kg/m(2), presence of ejaculated sperm, normal uterus, <= 2 previous failed IVF cycles.\n\nIntervention(s): Patients were randomized to the PGS group or the control group on day 3 after oocyte retrieval; 23 women underwent blastomere biopsy on day 3 after fertilization (PGS group), and 24 women underwent routine IVF (control group). All embryos were transferred on day 5 or 6 after fertilization.\n\nMain Outcome Measure(s): Pregnancy, implantation, multiple gestation, and live birth rates.\n\nResult(s): No statistically
significant differences were found between the PGS and control groups with respect to clinical pregnancy rate Selleck GANT61 (52.4% versus 72.7%). However, the embryo implantation rate was statistically significantly lower for the PGS group (34.7% versus 62.3%) as were the live birth rate (28.6% versus 68.2%) and the multiple birth rate (9.1% versus 46.7%).\n\nConclusion(s): In a “good prognosis” population of women, PGS does not appear to improve pregnancy, implantation, or live birth rates. (Fertil Steril (R)
2009;91:1731-8. (C)2009 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)”
“Objective: find more To assess changes in the levator plate angle (LPA), anteroposterior length of the levator hiatus (H-line), and pelvic floor descent (M-line) after vaginal hysterectomy and prolapse repair using the Gynecare Prolift Total Pelvic Floor Repair System. Methods: Before and after the intervention, 20 women with pelvic floor prolapse underwent dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in supine position during the Valsalva maneuver to measure the LPA, H-line, and M-line. Paired t tests were performed and Pearson correlation coefficients calculated from values obtained using the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system. Results: After the intervention the LPA was smaller (46.92 degrees vs 55.39 degrees, P<0.05), the H-line was shorter (53.70 cm vs 60.46 cm, P<0.05), and the M-line was shorter (19.58 cm vs 25.27 cm, P<0.05).
The two domains enclose the metal-binding site, which contains a zinc ion. The interaction of Lbp with laminin was further investigated and shown to be specific in vitro. Localization studies with antibodies specific for Lbp show that
the protein is attached to the membrane. The data suggest that Lbp is primarily a zinc-binding protein, and we suggest that its interaction with laminin in vivo may be mediated via zinc bound to laminin.”
“Uniaxial and biaxial mechanical properties of purified elastic tissue from the proximal thoracic aorta were studied to understand physiological load distributions within the arterial wall. Stress-strain behaviour was non-linear in uniaxial and inflation tests. Elastic tissue was 40% stiffer in the circumferential direction compared to axial in uniaxial tests and similar www.selleckchem.com/products/gm6001.html to 100% stiffer
in vessels at an axial stretch ratio check details of 1.2 or 1.3 and inflated to physiological pressure. Poisson’s ratio nu(theta z) averaged 0.2 and nu(z theta) inc reased with circumferential stretch from -0.2 to -0.4. Axial stretch had little impact on circumferential behaviour. In intact (unpurified) vessels at constant length, axial forces decreased with pressure at low axial stretches but remained constant at higher stretches. Such a constant axial force is characteristic of incrementally isotropic arteries at their in vivo dimensions. In purified elastic tissue, force decreased with pressure at all axial strains, showing no trend towards isotropy. Analysis of the force-length-pressure data indicated a vessel with nu(theta z) approximate to 0.2 would stretch axially 2-4% AZD6094 with the cardiac pulse yet maintain constant axial force. We compared the ability of 4 mathematical models to predict the pressure-circumferential stretch behaviour of tethered, purified elastic tissue. Models that assumed isotropy could not predict the stretch at zero pressure. The neo-Hookean model overestimated the non-linearity of the response and two non-linear models underestimated it. A model incorporating contributions from orthogonal fibres captured the non-linearity but not the zero-pressure response. Models incorporating
anisotropy and non-linearity should better predict the mechanical behaviour of elastic tissue of the proximal thoracic aorta. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Supervised and unsupervised vector quantization methods for classification and clustering traditionally use dissimilarities, frequently taken as Euclidean distances. In this article, we investigate the applicability of divergences instead, focusing on online learning. We deduce the mathematical fundamentals for its utilization in gradient-based online vector quantization algorithms. It bears on the generalized derivatives of the divergences known as Frechet derivatives in functional analysis, which reduces in finite-dimensional problems to partial derivatives in a natural way.
In this study, we present a novel model of forced desynchronization in mice under a specific CJL schedule; in addition, our model provides theoretical tools for the evaluation of circadian disruption under CJL conditions that are currently used in circadian research.”
“We have investigated the interaction between cobalt-(6) pyrrole Liproxstatin-1 solubility dmso [Co-(6)Ppy] clusters and O-2 molecule, including the adsorption and dissociation of O-2 molecule using the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We found that O-2 molecule is adsorbed on Co-(6) Ppy
clusters with side-on configuration and the O-O bond length elongated around 10%. The elongation of the O-O bond when O-2 is adsorbed on the clusters will weaken the O-O bond and increase the reactivity of the molecule. The calculated dissociation energies of O-2 molecule on Co-(6) Ppy clusters span from 0.89 to 1.23 eV. The order of the dissociation energy is affected by the amount of the charge Elafibranor purchase transferred from Co-(6) Ppy clusters to the O-2 molecule in the transition state. (C) 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“We had for aim to present the three applications of computer-assisted implantology: preoperative exploration of the surgery site, guided surgery, and preparation of the temporization prosthesis before surgery. Cases are presented for each
indication and their clinical relevance is discussed. C59 wnt (C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: To know the anthropometric and clinical characteristics of a children population sample, to study the prevalence and concurrence of cardiovascular risk factors in that sample, and to define the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in that population considering the blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and fasting glycemia values, as well as the anthropometrical measurements.\n\nSetting: The health care area of Toledo.\n\nSubjects: Children aged 4 years included in the Toledo Area Study.\n\nInterventions: A prospective study is performed on
the metabolic syndrome-related cardiovascular risk factors in a sample of 58 children from the Toledo Area Study. Data on anthropometrical and lipoprotein profile at birth were obtained. The anthropometrical, lipoprotein, and biochemical data were compared with those from other populations; we also looked for possible differences between boys and girls. At the same time, we analyzed the association between several cardiovascular risk factors in that population (logistic regression model) and we set up the cut-off levels to define in the children population possible candidates to metabolic syndrome. These levels are in agreement with those from similar adolescent populations.\n\nResults: Among the risk factors, higher systolic and diastolic pressure values stand up in girls (93.93-boys-vs 98.41-girls-p=0.058; 52.32-boys- vs 57.27-girls-p=0.