The two domains enclose the metal-binding site, which contains a zinc ion. The interaction of Lbp with laminin was further investigated and shown to be specific in vitro. Localization studies with antibodies specific for Lbp show that

the protein is attached to the membrane. The data suggest that Lbp is primarily a zinc-binding protein, and we suggest that its interaction with laminin in vivo may be mediated via zinc bound to laminin.”

“Uniaxial and biaxial mechanical properties of purified elastic tissue from the proximal thoracic aorta were studied to understand physiological load distributions within the arterial wall. Stress-strain behaviour was non-linear in uniaxial and inflation tests. Elastic tissue was 40% stiffer in the circumferential direction compared to axial in uniaxial tests and similar www.selleckchem.com/products/gm6001.html to 100% stiffer

in vessels at an axial stretch ratio check details of 1.2 or 1.3 and inflated to physiological pressure. Poisson’s ratio nu(theta z) averaged 0.2 and nu(z theta) inc reased with circumferential stretch from -0.2 to -0.4. Axial stretch had little impact on circumferential behaviour. In intact (unpurified) vessels at constant length, axial forces decreased with pressure at low axial stretches but remained constant at higher stretches. Such a constant axial force is characteristic of incrementally isotropic arteries at their in vivo dimensions. In purified elastic tissue, force decreased with pressure at all axial strains, showing no trend towards isotropy. Analysis of the force-length-pressure data indicated a vessel with nu(theta z) approximate to 0.2 would stretch axially 2-4% AZD6094 with the cardiac pulse yet maintain constant axial force. We compared the ability of 4 mathematical models to predict the pressure-circumferential stretch behaviour of tethered, purified elastic tissue. Models that assumed isotropy could not predict the stretch at zero pressure. The neo-Hookean model overestimated the non-linearity of the response and two non-linear models underestimated it. A model incorporating contributions from orthogonal fibres captured the non-linearity but not the zero-pressure response. Models incorporating

anisotropy and non-linearity should better predict the mechanical behaviour of elastic tissue of the proximal thoracic aorta. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

“Supervised and unsupervised vector quantization methods for classification and clustering traditionally use dissimilarities, frequently taken as Euclidean distances. In this article, we investigate the applicability of divergences instead, focusing on online learning. We deduce the mathematical fundamentals for its utilization in gradient-based online vector quantization algorithms. It bears on the generalized derivatives of the divergences known as Frechet derivatives in functional analysis, which reduces in finite-dimensional problems to partial derivatives in a natural way.