Peritoneal macrophages of Dinaciclib solubility dmso caspase-1
knockout mice were stimulated for 24 h with either B. afzelii or B. burgdorferi. Both strains were able to induce IL-1β and IL-6 in peritoneal macrophages of WT mice. Macrophages from caspase-1-deficient mice showed significantly decreased levels of IL-1β, while the production of IL-6 by Borrelia was not affected in caspase-1-deficient cells. Although a slight increase in IL-6 in caspase-1 mice was found, this difference was not statistically significant (Fig. 1C). Borrelia is able to elicit IL-β and IL-6 production, cytokines that are often associated with inflammatory processes. In addition, production of IL-17 and IFN-γ by Th17 and Th1 subsets, respectively, has been suggested to play a role in the immune response against Borrelia 9, 22. To investigate whether spleen cells of naïve mice are able to produce IL-17 and IFN-γ after Borrelia exposure, spleen cells of WT mice were stimulated for 5 days with 1×106/mL spirochetes. A significant amount of IL-17 production after Borrelia stimulation
could be detected (Fig. 2A). In addition, IFN-γ production was also potently induced after exposure to Borrelia (Fig. 2A). Since it was shown that Borrelia activates caspase-1, the contribution of caspase-1 in the induction of IFN-γ and IL-17 was investigated. A significant decrease in both IL-17 and IFN-γ production selleck chemicals llc was detected in spleen cells of caspase-1 gene-deficient mice stimulated with Borrelia spp. (Fig. 2B). Since we know that caspase-1 plays an important role in the induction of cytokines, we examined the role of caspase-1 in vivo.
Borrelia spirochetes were injected directly into knee joints of naïve (WT) and caspase-1 knockout mice. After 4 h, patellae were collected and Adenosine triphosphate cytokine levels were measured in patella washouts. Highly significant differences in IL-1β, IL-6 and KC production could be detected when WT patellae were compared with caspase-1 gene-deficient patellae (Fig. 3A). In addition, the influx of inflammatory cells into the joint cavity of caspase-1 KO mice were decreased as compared to WT mice. Lower amounts of PMN could be seen in caspase-1−/− mice as well as less thickening of the synovial lining (Fig. 3B). When we counted the cell influx, we were able to see approximately 30% reduction in cell influx in all examined joints (n=10) of the caspase-1-deficient animals in comparison to the WT animals (n=10), which was found to be significant (Fig. 3C). We explored whether IL-1β might play a role in the induction of IL-17 during Borrelia host defense. Peritoneal macrophages and spleen cells of IL-1β gene-deficient mice were stimulated with 1×106/mL B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi for 24 h or 5 days, respectively. No differences in IL-6 production could be observed between the WT and IL-1β-deficient cells (Fig. 4A).