, 2008; Qualls et al., 2010; Murray & Wynn, 2011). Expression
of Arg1 by M2 ABC294640 manufacturer macrophages is required for the suppression of T cell proliferation (Pesce et al., 2009), although the corresponding studies in humans have yet to be performed. Moreover, experiments to test T-cell proliferation regulation by Arg1 in Mtb infection need further investigation. In M1 macrophages that are involved in Mtb infection, Arg1 expression and activity is an important mechanism by which Mtb regulates macrophage function by suppressing NO production (El Kasmi et al., 2008; Qualls et al., 2010). Additional studies are necessary to determine whether Arg1 expression by macrophages in human lungs of patients with TB facilitates or not pathogen survival. In humans, it has been reported that Arg1 is released by polymorphonuclear granulocytes and accumulate extracellularly inducing suppression of T-cell proliferation, cytokine synthesis, and also leads to CD3-chain down-regulation without altering T-cell viability (Munder et al., 2006). Besides regulating NO production, these Arg1-dependent events may also play a role in human Mtb infection. In addition, our results demonstrated that, iNOS is also expressed within macrophages associated with granulomas in human TB
lung samples. Interestingly, the number of Arg1-positive cells was higher than the iNOS-positive cells (Fig. 1h). Coexpression of Arg1 and iNOS in mycobacteria-infected cells has been documented, and indeed, competition Oxymatrine between iNOS and arginase for arginine this website has been suggested to contribute to the outcome of infection, because coexpression of Arg1 and iNOS alters the arginine balance such that NO production cannot be maximal (Modolell et al., 1995; Chang et al., 1998; Mills, 2001). Studies have demonstrated
that the expression of host Arg2 may also be up-regulated in macrophages infected by several intracellular pathogens such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and Helicobacter pylori (Das et al., 2010). We have found that Arg2 expression is rarely observed in TB lungs, suggesting that Arg2 is not up-regulated in the Mtb-infected human lungs. Whether Arg2 is up-regulated in other tissues (e.g. lymph nodes and spleen) during TB infection remains to be investigated. Type II pneumocytes are specialized cells responsible for the secretion of surfactants such as SP-A, a lipoprotein complex that reduces the surface tension at the air–liquid interface of the lung, which in turn enables any fluid to be converted into droplets that can be rapidly removed. Type II pneumocytes also possess some phagocytic properties (Bermudez & Goodman, 1996; Sato et al., 2002). Mtb multiplies within human type II cell line in vitro, leading to pro-inflammatory citokyne production, which directly influences macrophage function (Sato et al., 2002).