Supporting data are largely from mixed populations of adolescents

Supporting data are largely from mixed populations of adolescents and adults, although ICS/LABA combinations

are not approved for adolescents in all countries. This analysis evaluates overall asthma control in asthma patients aged >= 16 years receiving ICS/LABA combinations.\n\nMethods: This was a post hoc analysis of asthma patients aged >= 16 years in a randomized, double-blind/open-label extension, parallel-group study. Patients received fixed maintenance-dose budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort (R) Turbuhaler (R)), fixed maintenance-dose salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (Seretide/Advair/Adoair (TM) Diskus (TM)) or adjustable maintenance-dose Selleck Mocetinostat budesonide/formoterol. Patients used terbutaline or salbutamol for as-needed reliever medication. The primary efficacy variable was the odds of having a well controlled asthma week during the randomized treatment period.\n\nResults: ICS/LABA regimens were well tolerated and efficacious, and the odds for achieving a well controlled asthma week did not differ between groups in this sub-analysis.

The number of exacerbations was similar between fixed-dose regimens; however, there were trends toward fewer exacerbations requiring hospitalization/emergency room treatment in the fixed- and adjustable maintenance-dose budesonide/formoterol groups (three and two events, respectively) than in the fixed-dose salmeterol/fluticasone propionate group (eight events). Improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) were small but significantly greater with fixed-dose budesonide/formoterol ACY-738 purchase versus fixed-dose salmeterol/fluticasone propionate.\n\nConclusions: This post hoc analysis

supports the use of ICS/LABA combinations in adults aged >= 16 years.”
“Lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) is a member of the TNF cytokine superfamily, produced principally by lymphocytes. It plays an important role in immune and inflammatory responses. Many TNF superfamily members have functionally important isoforms generated by find protocol alternative splicing but alternative splicing of LTA has never been studied. The known LTA protein is encoded by a transcript containing four exons. Here we report seven new LTA splice variants, three of them evolutionary conserved. We demonstrate their presence in cytoplasmic RNA suggesting that they could be translated into new LTA isoforms. We observed that their expression is differentially regulated upon activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4+, CD8+, and CD19+). Our data suggest that the new LTA splice variants might play a role in the regulation of the immune response. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Disturbance of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain is coupled to age-related brain dysfunction.

“Background Malignant melanoma (MM) has the highest morbi

“Background. Malignant melanoma (MM) has the highest morbidity of any malignant tumour. It is known that the Wnt pathway of enhances the Nutlin-3 development of melanoma. Dickkopf (DKK)-1, an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt/beta catenin pathway,

might also inhibit the development of MM. Aim. To examine the influence of DKK-1 expression on the invasive activity of MM cells. Methods. To detect DKK-1 expression level we performed immunohistochemistry on human tissue sections of normal skin, malignant melanoma (MM) in situ, and MM with lymph-node metastasis. To clarify the role that DDK-1 plays in the invasive activity of MM cells, we performed a scratch-wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay for A375 cells infected with appropriate recombinant adenoviruses, then assessed the migration of these cells. Results. Fewer DDK1-overexpressing

A375 cells than control cells migrated to the scratch-wound area or through the pores of the Transwell membrane to the lower wells. Downregulation of DKK-1 in A375 cells had the opposite effect. Conclusions. In the present study, we found for the first time that DKK-1 expression inhibits the invasive activity of MM cells.”
“We present a negative dielectrophoretic Buparlisib in vitro (n-DEP) force based high throughput cell sorting system integrating a cantilever-type electrode array in a vertical macro channel to leverage gravity driven flow and eliminate the need for external pumps. The system comprises a macro-sized channel to increase throughput, a cantilever electrode array (L X W X H=150 mu m x 500 mu m x 10 mu m) to achieve n-DEP force and high throughput, and a flow regulator to precisely control hydrodynamic force. The hydrodynamic force and the n-DEP force acting on the target cell are evaluated theoretically. In addition, optimal separation conditions are investigated using computational models. Separation conditions are experimentally investigated based on simulation results.

Finally, to demonstrate selleck compound library the separation performance of the sorting system, we performed the separation of the human breast cancer cells (MCF 7) from diluted red blood cells (RBCs) under conditions of low voltage (7Vp-p with 500 kHz) and flow rate of 5 mu L . min(-1). The system can separate MCF 7 cell with 71% separation efficiency in case of the ratio of 1 : 60000 (MCF 7 : RBCs).”
“Background: Brain metastases (BM) are an increasing challenge in modern oncology, as treatment options especially after exhaustion of local treatment approaches are very limited. Patient and Methods: A long-term surviving patient with brain-only metastatic breast cancer, who presented at our department with massive corticosteroid-refractory brain edema with serious neuro-logical symptoms after exhaustion of all local therapy options, was started on bevacizumab.


limited pathogen access to the mucosal surface and p


limited pathogen access to the mucosal surface and protected from gut inflammation in challenge infections. This protection was O-antigen specific, as demonstrated with pathogens lacking the S. typhimurium O-antigen (wbaP, S. enteritidis) and sIgA-deficient mice (TCR beta(-/-)delta(-/-), J(H)(-/-), IgA(-/-), pIgR(-/-)). Surprisingly, sIgA-deficiency did not affect the kinetics of pathogen clearance from the gut lumen. Instead, this was mediated by the microbiota. This was confirmed using ‘L-mice’ which harbor a low complexity gut flora, lack colonization resistance and develop a normal sIgA response, but fail to clear S. tm(att) from the gut lumen. In these mice, pathogen clearance CT99021 chemical structure was achieved by transferring a normal complex microbiota. Thus, besides colonization resistance (= pathogen blockage by an intact microbiota), the microbiota mediates a second, novel protective function, i.e. pathogen clearance. Here, MRT67307 research buy the normal microbiota re-grows from a state of depletion and disturbed composition and gradually clears even very high pathogen loads from the gut lumen, a site inaccessible to most “classical” immune effector mechanisms. In conclusion, sIgA and microbiota serve complementary

protective functions. The microbiota confers colonization resistance and mediates pathogen clearance in primary infections, while sIgA protects from disease if the host re-encounters the same pathogen. This has implications for curing S. typhimurium diarrhea and for preventing transmission.”
“E-Cadherin/beta-catenin complex plays an important role in maintaining epithelial integrity and disrupting this complex affect not only the adhesive repertoire of a cell, but also the Wnt-signaling pathway. Aberrant

expression of the complex is associated with a wide variety of human malignancies and disorders of fibrosis resulting from epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These associations provide insights into the complexity that is likely responsible for selleck products the fibrosis/tumor suppressive action of E-cadherin/beta-catenin.”
“CD29 is the integrin betal subunit Integrin family members are membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and recognition in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, tissue repair and immune response. In this study, a novel CD29-like gene (LCD29) was identified and characterized in Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum). an agnathan that occupies a critical phylogenic position between cephalochordates and gnathostomes After a partial cDNA sequence of LCD29 was found from the leucocyte cDNA library, the full-length cDNA was obtained by means of 3′ and 5′ RACE, respectively LCD29 encodes 780 amino acids and shares high sequence homology with other vertebrates Both real-time PCR and immunohistochemical assays have demonstrated the wide distribution of the LCD29 in lamprey tissues, and FACS analysis has shown that the expression level of this protein is higher in granulocytes than in lymphocytes.

Results: 12 4% of patients had

SCA in NMOSD Patients wit

Results: 12.4% of patients had

SCA in NMOSD. Patients with SCA had a longer disease duration and VX-770 manufacturer higher EDSS at clinical onset and last visit. More importantly, SCA patients were more prone to reach disability milestones (EDSS = 6.0). Bowel or bladder dysfunction, movement disorders, and sensory disturbances symptoms were more common in patients with SCA. ESR and CRP were significantly higher in patients with SCA than those without SCA. Patients with SCA were more frequently complicated with cervical cord lesions. However, the ARR, progression index, seropositive rate of NMO-IgG and OCB were similar in the two groups. Futhermore, LETM did not differ significantly between patients with SCA and without SCA in NMOSD patients. Conclusions: Patients with SCA might have longer disease duration, more severe clinical disability, and more frequently complicated with cervical spinal cord lesions. SCA might be predictive of the more severe neurologic dysfunction and worse prognosis in NMOSD.

Inflammation contributes to the development of SCA in NMOSD.”
“In this original work, the Indium oxide (In2O3) thin film is deposited cleanly on microscope glass substrate at different temperatures by spray pyrolysis technique. The physical properties of the films are characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM and AFM measurements. The spectroscopic investigation has been carried out on the results of FT-IR, Fr-Raman and UV-Visible. XRD analysis exposed that the structural click here transformation of films from stoichiothetric to non-stoichiometric orientation of the plane vice versa Sotrastaurin solubility dmso and also found that, the film is polycrystalline in nature having cubic crystal structure with a preferred grain orientation along (22 2) plane.

SEM and AFM studies revealed that, the film with 0.1 M at 500 degrees C has spherical grains with uniform dimension. The complete vibrational analysis has been carried out and the optimized parameters are calculated using HF and DFT (CAM-B3LYP, B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 3-21G(d,p) basis set. Furthermore, NMR chemical shifts are calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) technique. The molecular electronic properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, molecular electrostatic potential energy (MEP) analysis and Polarizability first order hyperpolarizability calculations are performed by time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The energy excitation on electronic structure is investigated and the assignment of the absorption bands in the electronic spectra of steady compound is discussed. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies showed the enhancement of energy gap by the addition of substitutions with the base molecule. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) at different temperatures are calculated and interpreted in gas phase. Crown Copyright (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics [doi:10 1063/1 3565049]“<

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3565049]“
“Aims: While complex symptom scales are important research tools, simpler, preferably single item scales may be more useful for routine clinical practise in the evaluation of patients with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). This study aimed to compare multiple single-item scales at baseline and after treatment with patient-reported

overall rating of treatment efficacy. Methods: In a pre-planned secondary analysis of a previously reported observational study, 4,450 patients were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks open-label treatment with solifenacin. Apart from episode counting for find more classical OAB symptoms, the following single-item rating scales were applied: Indevus Urgency Severity Scale, Urgency Perception Scale, a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), quality of life question of the IPSS, and general health and bladder problem questions of the King’s Health Questionnaire (KHQ). Results: At baseline OAB symptoms correlated at best moderately with each (r = 0.285-0.508) other or with any of the rating scales (r = 0.060-0.399). Pair-wise correlations between treatment-associated symptom

or scale improvements tended to be tighter (r = 0.225-0.588). When compared to patient-reported efficacy, the VAS (r = 0.487) and the bladder problem question of the KHQ (r = 0.452) showed the tightest correlation, whereas all symptom and rating scale improvements exhibited poor correlation with patient-reported tolerability (r <= 0.283). Conclusions: The VAS and the bladder problem question of the KHQ show the greatest AZD5582 promise as single-item scales to assess problem intensity in OAB patients. Neurourol. Urodynam.

30: 510-514, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors during pregnancy are rare. There is sparse clinical evidence about the safety of chemotherapy in this situation.\n\nCASE: A 34-year-old woman was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 15 1/2 weeks of pregnancy with a Krukenberg tumor. She was treated with surgical removal and 10 courses of the combination of 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid, and irinotecan every 2 weeks PKC inhibitor until the 36th week of her pregnancy. The neonate was born without complications, and at age 4 months, showed normal development and no teratogenic effects.\n\nCONCLUSION: In this case, irinotecan started at the second trimester and was safely used at full adjuvant dose. (Obstet Gynecol 2009;114:451-2)”
“Bird M-L, Hill KD, Fell JW. A randomized controlled study investigating static and dynamic balance in older adults after training with Pilates. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:43-9.\n\nObjective: To evaluate effects of a Pilates intervention on balance and function in community-dwelling older (aged > 60y) adults.\n\nDesign: Randomized crossover study design lasting 16 weeks.\n\nSetting: University exercise clinic.

The reversible inhibition by NO of the ETR could be restored by b

The reversible inhibition by NO of the ETR could be restored by bicarbonate, a compound known to compete with NO for one of the two coordination sites of the non-haem iron (II) in the Q(A)Fe(2)Q(B) complex.”
“P>The family Chlamydiaceae contains several bacterial pathogens of

important human and veterinary medical concern, such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila psittaci. Within the order Chlamydiales there are also an increasing number of LY2606368 chlamydia-like bacteria whose biodiversity, host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and which are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. In this study we present 16S rRNA, rnpB and ompA gene sequence data congruently indicating a novel chlamydia-like bacterium

found in faecal specimens from opportunistic fish-eating sea birds, belonging to the Laridae and Alcidae families, from the Bering Sea. This novel bacterium appears to be closer to the Chlamydiaceae than other chlamydia-like bacteria and is most likely a novel genus within the Chlamydiaceae family.”
“Hydrophobic membranes are perceived to be chemically stable and resistant to dry-out during intermittent membrane distillation (MD) operations. However, distillate quality deterioration has been reported in field tests of solar-powered MD systems. This work investigates the effects of salt deposition, resulting from membrane dry-out,

on the properties of two types Navitoclax molecular weight of commercial hydrophobic membranes commonly used for MD purposes. The membranes are made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidenefluoride C188-9 (PVDF). The intermittent operation was simulated by a series of wet/dry cycles using seawater at MD operational temperatures. Membrane properties including surface contact angle, gas permeability, and mechanical strength were assessed, along with other structural characteristics like pore size distribution. The morphology of the salt-exposed membranes was also investigated using SEM and EDS. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements were carried out to assess surface morphology and quantify surface roughness, in relation to the fouling process. AFM was combined with the use of a CaCO3 colloid probe to assess adhesion forces between CaCO3 and the membranes. DCMD experiments were conducted to study the post-fouling performance of the membranes in the MD process. Significant scaling was detected starting from the first week of seawater exposure, as evidenced by all the characterization techniques used. PVDF and PTFE membranes were observed to behave somewhat differently under these fouling conditions. DCMD experiments proved that membrane wetting was exacerbated by intermittent operation. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mixed model analyses revealed significant changes in lipid metabo

Mixed model analyses revealed significant changes in lipid metabolites in the HealthyDiet group during the intervention compared to the Control group. All changes reflected increased polyunsaturation in plasma fatty acids, especially

in n-3 PUFAs, while n-6 and n-7 fatty acids decreased. According to tertiles of changes in fish intake, a greater increase of fish intake was associated with increased selleck chemicals concentration of large HDL particles, larger average diameter of HDL particles, and increased concentrations of large HDL lipid components, even though total levels of HDL cholesterol remained stable. Conclusions: The results suggest that consumption of diet rich in whole grain, bilberries and especially fatty fish causes changes in HDL particles shifting their subclass distribution toward larger particles. These changes may be related to known protective functions of HDL such as reverse cholesterol transport and could KOS 1022 partly explain the known protective effects

of fish consumption against atherosclerosis.”
“Background: Recent efforts demonstrated the potential application of cyanobacteria as a “microbial cell factory” to produce butanol directly from CO2. However, cyanobacteria have very low tolerance to the toxic butanol, which limits the economic viability of this renewable system. Results: Through a long-term experimental evolution process, we achieved a 150% increase of the butanol tolerance in a model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 after a continuous 94 passages for 395 days in BG11 media amended with gradually Apoptosis inhibitor increased butanol concentration from 0.2% to 0.5% (v/v). To decipher the molecular mechanism

responsible for the tolerance increase, we employed an integrated GC-MS and LC-MS approach to determine metabolomic profiles of the butanol-tolerant Synechocystis strains isolated from several stages of the evolution, and then applied PCA and WGCNA network analyses to identify the key metabolites and metabolic modules related to the increased tolerance. The results showed that unstable metabolites of 3-phosphoglyceric acid (3PG), D-fructose 6-phosphate (F6P), D-glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), NADPH, phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP), D-ribose 5-phosphate (R5P), and stable metabolites of glycerol, L-serine and stearic acid were differentially regulated during the evolution process, which could be related to tolerance increase to butanol in Synechocystis. Conclusions: The study provided the first time-series description of the metabolomic changes related to the gradual increase of butanol tolerance, and revealed a metabolomic basis important for rational tolerance engineering in Synechocystis.”
“Electrostatic interactions often play key roles in the recognition of small molecules by nucleic acids. An example is aminoglycoside antibiotics, which by binding to ribosomal RNA (rRNA) affect bacterial protein synthesis.


DVH parameter addition provides a good es


DVH parameter addition provides a good estimate for D-2cm3, whereas D-0.1cm3 is less robust to this approximation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The contribution of community medicine distributors (CMD) to prompt health service delivery in areas described as “hard-to-reach” is important but the value of their work time remains unknown and thus makes it difficult to design appropriate regular financial incentives to motivate them. This makes CMDs feel their efforts are not recognized. An attempt to estimate the value of 54 CMDs’ work time involved in community case management of malaria (CCMm) in a rural district in Ghana is presented.\n\nMethods: Time spent by CMDs on CCMm activities were recorded for a period of 12 months to determine the work-time value. Cost analysis was GW4869 supplier performed in Microsoft Excel with data from CMD records and at 2007 market price in Ghana.\n\nResults: A CMD spent 4.8 hours, [95% CI: 3.9; 5.3] on all CCMm-related activities per day. The time value of CMD work ranged from GHc 2.04 (US$ 2.24) to GHc 4.1 [US$ 4.6] per week and GHc 19.2-86.4 (US$ LDK378 chemical structure 21.10-94.95) per month. The gross wage outside CCMm as reported by CMD was GHc 58.4 [US$ 64.69] and value of foregone income of GHc 86.40

(US$ 94.95) per month, about 14-times higher than the monthly incentives of GHc 6.0 given by the CCMm programme.\n\nConclusion: The value of work time and the foregone income of CMDs in CCMm are high and yet there are no regular and sustainable incentives provided for them. The results are significant to policy in designing incentives to motivate CMDs in large-scale implementation of CCMm.”
“Background: Pregnant women exposed to traffic pollution have an increased risk of negative birth outcomes. We aimed to investigate the size of this risk using a prospective cohort of 970

mothers and newborns in Logan, Queensland.\n\nMethods: We examined two measures of traffic: distance to nearest road and number of roads around the home. To examine the effect of distance we used the number of roads around the home Selleckchem CH5183284 in radii from 50 to 500 metres. We examined three road types: freeways, highways and main roads.\n\nResults: There were no associations with distance to road. A greater number of freeways and main roads around the home were associated with a shorter gestation time. There were no negative impacts on birth weight, birth length or head circumference after adjusting for gestation. The negative effects on gestation were largely due to main roads within 400 metres of the home. For every 10 extra main roads within 400 metres of the home, gestation time was reduced by 1.1% (95% CI: -1.7, -0.5; p-value = 0.001).\n\nConclusions: Our results add weight to the association between exposure to traffic and reduced gestation time.

Further investigation is warranted Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Su

Further investigation is warranted. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;138(6):577-583″
“Background: Surgical treatment of stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be performed either by thoracotomy or by employing video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). The aim of this study was to compare long and short-term results of conventional AZD9291 cell line surgery (CS) vs. VATS lobectomy in the treatment of stage I NSCLC. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective, analytical study of patients undergoing surgery for stage I NSCLC during the period January 1993 to December 2005.

The variables analyzed were overall survival, recurrence, distant metastasis, morbidity, mortality and hospital stay. During this period, 256 anatomic lung resections were performed: 141 by CS and

115 by VATS. Results: There were statistically significant differences in: (i) mean hospital stay in patients with no complications (VATS group: 4.3 days vs. CS group: 8.7 days, P = .0001); (ii) mean hospital stay in patients with complications (VATS: 7.2 days vs. CS: 13.7 days, P =. 0001), and (iii) morbidity (VATS: 15.6% vs. CS: 36.52%, P = .0001). No statistically significant differences were found in: (i) mortality (VATS: 2.17% vs. CS: 1.7%, P = .88); (ii) 5-year overall survival (VATS: 68.1% vs. CS: 63.8%), and (iii) local recurrence and distant metastasis MK-1775 mw (P = .82). Conclusions: VATS lobectomy is a safe and effective approach, with a shorter hospital stay and lower morbidity than CS; no statistically significant differences were observed in survival in patients undergoing surgery for stage I NSCLC. (C) 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.”
“Many ecosystem services are public goods whose provision depends on the spatial pattern of land use. The pattern of land use is often determined by the decisions of multiple private landowners. Increasing the provision of ecosystem services, though beneficial for society as a whole, may be costly to private landowners. A regulator interested in providing incentives

to landowners for increased provision of NVP-BSK805 nmr ecosystem services often lacks complete information on landowners’ costs. The combination of spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric cost information means that the optimal provision of ecosystem services cannot be achieved using standard regulatory or payment for ecosystem services approaches. Here we show that an auction that sets payments between landowners and the regulator for the increased value of ecosystem services with conservation provides incentives for landowners to truthfully reveal cost information, and allows the regulator to implement the optimal provision of ecosystem services, even in the case with spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric information.

“Retreating ice fronts (as a result of awarming climate) e

“Retreating ice fronts (as a result of awarming climate) expose large expanses of deglaciated forefield, which become colonized by microbes and plants. There has been increasing interest in characterizing the biogeochemical development of these ecosystems

using a chronosequence approach. Prior to the establishment of plants, microbes use autochthonously produced and allochthonously delivered nutrients for growth. The microbial community composition is largely made up of heterotrophic microbes (both bacteria and fungi), autotrophic microbes and nitrogen-fixing diazotrophs. Microbial activity is thought to be responsible for the initial build-up of labile nutrient pools, facilitating the growth of higher order plant life in developed soils. However, it is unclear to what extent these ecosystems rely on external sources of nutrients such as

ancient carbon pools Selleck PCI-34051 and periodic nitrogen deposition. Furthermore, the seasonal variation of chronosequence dynamics and the effect of winter are largely unexplored. Modelling this ecosystem will provide a quantitative evaluation of the key processes and could guide the focus of future research. Year-round datasets combined with novel metagenomic techniques will help answer some of the Pexidartinib research buy pressing questions in this relatively new but rapidly expanding field, which is of growing interest in the context of future large-scale ice retreat.”
“Background: Nevirapine is an important component of paediatric combination HIV therapy. Adequate SB273005 in vivo drug exposure is necessary in order to achieve long-lasting viral suppression.\n\nObjectives: To study the influence of age, drug dose and formulation type, nutritional status and CYP2B6 516G>T polymorphism on blood concentrations of nevirapine in children

treated with generic antiretroviral drugs.\n\nMethods: A multicentre study was conducted at four sites in India. HIV-infected children receiving generic nevirapine-based fixed-dose combinations were recruited. Trough and 2 h nevirapine plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC. Characterization of the CYP2B6 gene polymorphism was performed using direct sequencing. Clinical and nutritional status was recorded. Groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors contributing to low drug levels.\n\nResults: Ninety-four children of median age 78 months were studied; 60% were undernourished or stunted. Stunted children had a significantly lower 2 h nevirapine concentration compared with non-stunted children (P<0.05); there were no significant differences in trough concentrations between different nutritional groups. Nevirapine levels were significantly higher in children with TT compared with GG and GT CYP2B6 genotypes (P<0.01). Children <= 3 years had a 3.2 (95% confidence interval 1.07-9.45) times higher risk of having sub-therapeutic nevirapine concentrations.