Here we recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from 36 sub

Here we recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from 36 subthalamic regions in 18 patients undergoing functional

neurosurgery for the treatment of PD. We recorded directly from the contacts learn more of the deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes as they were introduced in successive 2 mm steps, and assessed phase coherence as a measure of spatially extended, rather than local, oscillatory synchronization. We found that phase coherence in the beta frequency band correlated with the severity of Parkinsonian bradykinesia and rigidity, both in the limbs and axial body. Such correlations were frequency and site specific in so far as they were reduced when the lowermost contact of the DBS electrode was above MK-8776 clinical trial the dorsal STN. Correlations with limb tremor occurred at sub-beta band frequencies and were more lateralized than those between beta activity and limb bradykinesia

and rigidity. Phase coherence could account for up to similar to 25% of the variance in motor scores between sides and patients. These new data suggest that the strength of spatially extended oscillatory synchronization, as well as the strength of local synchronization, may be worthwhile incorporating into modelling studies designed to inform surgical targeting, post-operative stimulation parameter selection and closed-loop stimulation regimes in PD. In addition, they strengthen the link between pathological synchronization Selleckchem AS1842856 and the different motor features of Parkinsonism. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) spreads primarily by cell-to-cell transmission. Therefore, HTLV-1 promotes the proliferation of infected cells to facilitate transmission. In HTLV1 infected individuals, the provirus is present mainly in effector/ memory T cells and Foxp3+ T cells. Recent study suggests that this immunophenotype is acquired by infected cells through the function of HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ). Tax, which is encoded by the plus

strand, is crucial for viral replication and de novo infection, while HBZ, encoded by the minus strand, is important for proliferation of infected cells. Importantly, HBZ and Tax have opposing functions in most transcription pathways. HBZ and Tax cooperate in elaborate ways to permit viral replication, proliferation of infected cells and propagation of the virus.”
“Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. Although many gap filling methodologies have been employed, there is no standardized procedure for producing defensible estimates of annual Rsoil.

Search terms included voriconazole, blastomyces, blastomycosis, C

Search terms included voriconazole, blastomyces, blastomycosis, CNS, cerebral, and central nervous system.\n\nSTUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English-language clinical trials, case reports, treatment guidelines, and background material were searched for voriconazole safety and efficacy data. References of reviewed articles were examined and used to identify additional sources.\n\nDATA SYNTHESIS: A search of the literature yielded 2 published case reports and 2 case series documenting a total of 7 cases of CNS blastomycosis. In all cases, CNS blastomycosis was successfully treated

sequentially with amphotericin B followed by voriconazole. To date, no clinical trials have evaluated the use of voriconazole in treating CNS blastomycosis. Ages of the click here patients with documented cases of CNS blastomycosis ranged from 14 months

to 63 years. In at least 5 cases, CNS blastomycosis presented as lesions in the brain detected by magnetic resonance imaging. One case presented as focal splenic lesions. The. remaining 2 were diagnosed based on neuroimaging studies or positive spinal fluid serology. Prior to receiving voriconazole, patients were treated with an amphotericin B formulation combined in some situations with either fluconazole or itraconazole. Subjects underwent treatment with voriconazole for an average of 11 months, with disease remission or stabilization detected in MK5108 supplier all cases.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the role of voriconazole in the treatment of CNS blastomycosis. It nonetheless may be considered as an azole option for either follow-up therapy after liposomal amphotericin B therapy or as salvage therapy in patients intolerant of amphotericin B or other azoles.”
“The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of betaine against oxidative stress and pathological changes mediated by cadmium in the testes of rats. The adult male Wistar rats were

allocated into three experimental groups as follows: the cadmium group received cadmium chloride at the dosage of 2 mg/kg intraperitoneally thereafter, the rats treated by physiological saline for 10 consecutive days. The betaine plus cadmium group received betaine at the dosage of 1.5 % w/w of the total diet orally for 10 consecutive days and cadmium chloride injected at the 2nd day of the betaine treatment. The control rats were injected physiological saline. Both testes of rats were removed for antioxidant assay and pathological changes evaluation on days 5 and 10 after cadmium toxicity. TBARS concentration (as a lipid peroxidation marker) was significantly higher in the cadmium group by day 10 compared to control and betaine plus cadmium groups, and it was significantly higher in cadmium group by day 5 in comparison with the controls. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase activities decreased significantly by day 10 in cadmium group when compared to the controls.

The presence of integron and other resistance determinants was in

The presence of integron and other resistance determinants was investigated in 90 Aeromonas isolates derived from nine freshwater trout farms in Victoria (Australia).

Polymerase chain reaction was carried out for the detection of integrase genes Int1, Int2 and Int3, gene cassette array, integron-associated GS-7977 aadA, sul1 and qac1 genes, streptomycin resistance genes strA-strB, beta-lactamase resistance genes (bla)TEM and (bla)SHV, and tetracycline resistance genes tetA-E and tetM. Clonal analysis was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Class 1 integrons were detected in 28/90 (31%) and class 2 and class 3 in none of the strains, aadA gene in 19/27 (70%) streptomycin-resistant strains, sul1 in 13/15 (86.7%) sulphonamide-resistant strains and qac1 gene in 8/28 (28.6%) integron-bearing strains. Five strains from two different farms carried gene cassettes of 1000 bp each containing the aadA2 gene and PFGE analysis revealed genetic relatedness. tetC was detected in all and tetA in

9/18 (50%) tetra-cycline-resistant strains. The strA-strB, blaTEM or blaSHV genes were not detected in any of the strains. Aeromonas spp. carrying integrons and other resistance genes are present in farm-raised fish and sediments even though no antibiotics were licensed for use in Australian aquaculture at the time of the study.”
“Automated systems for monitoring behaviour of cows within dairy production are increasing and developments in technology provide new opportunities JNK-IN-8 in this area. This study aimed to validate the use of a 3D activity logger (HOBO (R) Pendant G Data Logger), that registers the cow’s head positions during grazing, to distinguish grazing behaviour from non-grazing behaviour.\n\n20 lactating dairy cows of the breed Swedish Red were included in the trial. All cows were observed for 30 min each day either in the morning or afternoon. The behavioural observations were conducted by two trained observers during 5 h a day for

ten days, 2.5 h in the morning (9:30-12:00 am) and 2.5 h in the evening (06:00-08:30 pm). Each cow had a logger attached to the right bottom side of the halter and the logging interval was set to 5s, which means that the head inclination was measured every fifth second. DZNeP research buy Furthermore an IceTag3D (TM) logger was attached to the right hind leg of each cow in order to evaluate if this information together with the information from the 3D activity sensor could increase the precision of the prediction. The DISCRIM procedure in SAS 9.12 was used to find the optimal value of a linear discrimination between grazing and non-grazing registrations and the 3D activity sensor was validated with 5 s, 5 min and 10 min logging intervals between observations points against the visual observation of grazing behaviour. The 5 and 10 min logging point was taken from the 5s logging point occurring with 5 and 10 min interval.

g life expectancy, implant design, spacers and external stabilis

g. life expectancy, implant design, spacers and external stabilisation). This article further analyses the current literature available for these cases and summarises outcome after treatment of periprosthetic infections.”
“The tissue-resident macrophages of barrier organs constitute the first line of defence against pathogens at the systemic interface with the ambient environment. In the lung, resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a sentinel function against EPZ5676 nmr inhaled pathogens(1). Bacterial constituents ligate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on AMs(2), causing AMs to secrete proinflammatory cytokines(3) that activate alveolar epithelial receptors(4), leading to recruitment of neutrophils that

engulf pathogens(5,6). Because the AM-induced response could itself cause tissue injury, it is unclear how AMs modulate the response to prevent injury. Here, using real-time alveolar imaging in situ, we show that a subset of AMs attached to the alveolar wall form connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junction channels with the epithelium. During lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the AMs remained sessile and attached to the alveoli, and they established intercommunication through synchronized Ca2+ waves, using the epithelium as the conducting pathway. The intercommunication was immunosuppressive, involving Ca2+-dependent activation of Akt,

because AM-specific knockout of Cx43 enhanced alveolar Crenolanib neutrophil recruitment and secretion PRT062607 solubility dmso of proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage. A picture emerges of a novel immunomodulatory process in which a subset of alveolus-attached AMs intercommunicates immunosuppressive signals to reduce endotoxin-induced lung inflammation.”
“Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered to be a promising method for treating various types of cancer. A homogeneous and reproducible illumination during clinical PDT plays

a determinant rote in preventing under- or over-treatment. The development of flexible light sources would considerably improve the homogeneity of light delivery. The integration of optical fiber into flexible structures could offer an interesting alternative. This paper aims to describe different methods proposed to develop Side Emitting Optical Fibers (SEOF), and how these SEOF can be integrated in a flexible structure to improve light illumination of the skin during PDT. Four main techniques can be described: (i) light blanket integrating side-glowing optical fibers, (ii) light emitting panel composed of SEOF obtained by micro-perforations of the cladding, (iii) embroidery-based light emitting fabric, and (iv) woven-based light emitting fabric. Woven-based light emitting fabrics give the best performances: higher fluence rate, best homogeneity of light delivery, good flexibility. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective This study presents occupational peak and average exposures to nitrous oxide in delivery suites in six Swedish hospitals and evaluates different scavenging techniques.

The potent compounds were

evaluated for their inhibitory

The potent compounds were

evaluated for their inhibitory activities against COX-2-catalyzed PGE(2) production, with 4a, 4b and 3c showing strong inhibitory activity.”
“I developed a passion for reproductive biology when taking a course in Physiology of Reproduction at Louisiana State University while preparing to apply for Veterinary School at Texas A&M University. My career path changed. I entered graduate school, obtained a Ph.D. and have enjoyed an academic career conducting research in uterine biology and pregnancy in animal science departments at the University of Florida and at Texas A&M BMS-777607 University. My contributions to science include: (1) identification of molecules secreted by or transported by uterine epithelia into the uterine lumen that are critical to successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, (2) discovery of steroids and proteins required for pregnancy-recognition signalling and their mechanisms of action in pigs and ruminants, (3) patterns of fetal-placental development and placental transport of nutrients, (4) identification of links between nutrients and components of histotroph that affect fetal-placental development, (5) characterising

aspects of the endocrinology of pregnancy and (6) contributing to efforts to exploit the therapeutic value of interferon tau, particularly for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Current research focuses on select nutrients in the uterine lumen, specifically amino acids, glucose

and fructose, that affect Panobinostat chemical structure conceptus development, the therapeutic potential for interferon tau, stromal-epithelial cell signalling whereby progesterone and oestrogen act via steroid receptors in uterine stromal cells to stimulate secretion of growth factors (e. g. fibroblast growth factors and hepatocyte growth factor) that regulate uterine epithelial cells and conceptus trophectoderm, and roles of toll-like receptors expressed by uterine epithelia and conceptus trophectoderm in pregnancy.”
“The erbB pathway involves a family of tyrosine kinases and contributes to resistance or sensitivity to chemotherapy in many tumor types. Somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene at the kinase domain have been found in lung cancer patients. These mutations are correlated with clinical response to targeted Fludarabine order molecular therapy. Although Caucasian lung cancer patients have been shown to harbor Braf and erbB2 mutations, only a few reports exist concerning Braf and erbB2 mutations in Japanese lung cancer patients. We investigated the Braf and erbB2 mutation status in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing. The study included 305 surgically removed lung cancer samples from the Nagoya City University Hospital, which were EGFR and Kras wild-type centric. Six Braf mutations were found in the adenocarcinoma cases. Among the adenocarcinoma cases.

Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to dete

Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to determine the relationship between shedding of the bacterium and specific ribotypes and the independent variables: time of sampling and area of housing.\n\nCalves were twice more likely to test positive 1 week after arrival (51%) when compared to initial results (32%). Shedding at 17 and 21 weeks was significantly

lower (2% at both samplings). Ribotype 078 was the most common. Twelve different ribotypes were present initially with only three ribotypes found subsequently. Seventy-six percent (40/53) of isolates initially recovered were tetracycline resistant compared to 93% (81/87) from 2nd sampling. Tetracycline resistance genes were detected in 24% (13/53) of isolates during 1st and in 55% (50/91) during 2nd sampling.\n\nThe high prevalence of pathogenic C difficile in veal calves could be of zoonotic concern. The low prevalence before slaughter may be of importance learn more for the evaluation of foodborne risks. Oxytetracycline administration to calves may have an impact on prevalence of C. difficile colonization. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A novel inverse CeO2/CuO catalyst for preferential oxidation

of CO in H-2-rich stream (CO-PROX) has been developed on the basis of a hypothesis extracted from previous work of the group (JACS 2007, 129, 12064). Possible separation of the two competing oxidation reactions involved in the process (of CO and H-2, respectively) is the AZD9291 key to modulation of overall CO-PROX activity and is based on involvement

of different sites as most active ones for each of the two reactions. Achievement of large size CuO particles and adequate CeO2-CuO interfacial configurations in the inverse catalyst apparently allows appreciable enhancement of the catalytic properties of this kind of system for CO-PROX, constituting an interesting alternative to classic direct configurations so far explored for this process. Reasons for such behavior are analyzed on the basis of operando-XRD, -XAFS, and -DRIFTS studies.”
“The aim of this paper is to assess the biodegradation of phenanthrene by Flavobacteria FCN2 which was isolated from coke plant sludge via a classical shaken liquid medium enrichment method. The strain FCN2 can decompose phenanthrene (50 mg l(-1)) completely within 5 days. The values of pH decrease to 6.7 from 7.2 during degradation periods. And a detailed phenanthrene metabolism was assayed by using FTIR, UV and GC-MS. For FTIR, appearance of new broad absorption bands at 2858cm(-1), 2927cm(-1), 2955cm(-1) and another new strong absorption band at 1734cm(-1) in metabolites demonstrates that carboxyl group produced during phenanthrene degradation. Besides this, a very strong absorption band appears at 1260cm(-1). It is ascribed to C-C stretching vibration band in carbonyl group of arone. Two weak adsorption at 334 nm and 349 nm in UV spectra were assigned to the n-pi* transition of C=O of aldehyde.

Linear data sets of individual patient slopes yielded the same qu

Linear data sets of individual patient slopes yielded the same qualitative results as the more complex repeated measures analyses,

allowing the use of standard statistical approaches (eg, Kruskal-Wallis), this website and promising analyses of smaller subgroups, which otherwise would be underpowered. With nonlinear data, a simple averaged score was highly sensitive in detecting differences. Use of these 2 workable and relatively simple approaches may be a first step towards facilitating the development of data sets that could enable meta-analyses of data from acute pain trials. (C) 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background/PurposeThe varying influence of multiple factors (e.g., aging, sex, season, skin care habits) on skin structure and function necessitates study within ethnic groups to fully characterize their skin. MethodsMen and women aged 40-50years (n=43) and their consanguineous same-sex children, aged 18-25years (n=43), living in Chengdu, China were enrolled in this single center, non-interventional study. Volunteers attended two study visits (summer, 2010 and winter, 2011) at which dermatologists measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, sebum secretion, fine

lines/roughness, melanin/erythema, temperature, and color, and clinically graded participants’ skin. Participants selleck chemicals answered a questionnaire, indicating their perceived skin type/condition. Data were analyzed using t-test/anova or Friedman/Wilcoxon test. ResultsObjective measurements demonstrated statistically significant inter-generational differences in skin condition, with aged skin more wrinkled at most sites, having reduced oil/colder facial and decolletage skin, darker/more erythematous skin in exposed areas, and less hydrated/rougher heel skin; similarities were detected in skin melanin, erythema, and TEWL. There were also statistically significant differences between seasons and sexes. The intersection between instrument measurements and subjective perceptions of skin revealed notable differences. ConclusionObjective measurements and their intersection with subjective perceptions demonstrate the influences

Bucladesine concentration of inter-generation, season, sex, and living habits on Chinese body skin.”
“Antimicrobial agents exert a selection pressure not only on pathogenic, but also on commensal bacteria of the intestinal tract of humans and animals. The aim of this work was to determine the occurrence of different enterococcal species and to analyse the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and the mechanisms implicated, as well as the genetic diversity in enterococci recovered from faecal samples of food-producing animals (poultry, beef and sheep) in Tunisia. Antimicrobial resistance and the mechanisms implicated were studied in 87 enterococci recovered from 96 faecal samples from animals of Tunisian farms. Enterococcus faecium was the most prevalent species detected (46 %), followed by E. hirae (33.5 %).

ConclusionsThe results of this review highlight the significant <

ConclusionsThe results of this review highlight the significant BAY 80-6946 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor economic burden of dementia for patients, families and

healthcare systems and thus are important for future health policy planning. The significant variation of cost estimates for different care settings underlines the need to understand and address the financial burden of dementia from both perspectives. For health policy planning in dementia, future COI studies should follow a quality standard protocol with clearly defined cost components and separate estimates by care setting and disease severity. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Here we report that indazole is characterized as a potential anticonvulsant, inhibiting EX 527 clinical trial pentylenetetrazole-,

electroshock- and strychnine-induced convulsions in mice (ED50′s: 39.9, 43.2 and 82.4 mg/kg, respectively) but not bicuculline- and picrotoxin-induced convulsions. The median toxic dose (TD50) of indazole was 52.3 mg/kg by the minimal motor impairment test. Therefore, nontoxic doses produced anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazole- and electroshock-induced seizures. Indazole (50 mg/kg) had no effect on spontaneous activity but induced hypothermia. It also inhibited the metabolism of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain in vivo and the activities of monoamine oxidase A and B in vitro, with IC50 values of M and 16.3 mu M, respectively. However, these inhibitory effects do not account for the anticonvulsant activity because treatment with typical monoamine oxidase

inhibitors such as pargyline or tranylcypromine did not completely reproduce the anticonvulsant activity of indazole. In the animal seizure models tested, the anticonvulsant profile of indazole most resembled that of gabapentin and somewhat resembled those of the AMPA/kainate antagonist NBQX and the sodium channel inhibitor phenytoin, but differed from that of benzodiazepine. The isobolographic analyses showed that the interactive mode of indazole with gabapentin, NBQX or phenytoin is additive. These results suggest that Luminespib solubility dmso indazole has anticonvulsant activity and multiple mechanisms. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The swine influenza virus (H1N1) 2009 pandemic highlights the importance of having effective anti-viral strategies. Recently, oseltamivir (Tamilflu) resistant influenza viruses are identified; which further emphasizes the urgency in developing new antiviral agents. In influenza virus replication cycle, viral surface glycoprotein, hemagelutinin, is responsible for viral entry into host cells. Hence, a potentially effective antiviral strategy is to inhibit viral entry mechanism. To develop novel antiviral agent that inhibits viral entry, we analyzed 20,000 traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) ingredients in hemagglutinin subtype H I sialic acid binding site found on H1N1 virus.

We show that decomposers can greatly alter the relative


We show that decomposers can greatly alter the relative

availability of nutrients for plants. The type of limiting nutrient promoted by decomposers depends on their own elemental composition and, when applicable, on their ingestion by consumers. Our results highlight the limitations of previous stoichiometric Selleckchem GSK690693 theories of plant nutrient limitation control, which often ignored trophic levels other than plants and herbivores. They also suggest that detrital chains play an important role in determining plant nutrient limitation in many ecosystems.”
“Background: The filamentous ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is primarily known for its efficient enzymatic machinery that it utilizes to decompose cellulosic substrates. Nevertheless, the nature and transmission of the signals initiating and modulating this machinery are largely unknown. Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling represents one of the best studied signal transduction pathways in fungi.\n\nResults: Analysis of the regulatory targets of the G-protein a subunit GNA1 in H. jecorina revealed a carbon source and light-dependent role LY2157299 in signal transduction. Deletion of gna1 led to significantly decreased biomass formation in darkness in submersed culture but had only minor effects on morphology and hyphal apical extension rates on solid medium. Cellulase gene transcription

was abolished in Delta gna1 on cellulose in light and enhanced in darkness. However, analysis of strains expressing a constitutively activated GNA1 revealed that GNA1 does not transmit the essential inducing signal. Instead, it relates a modulating signal with light-dependent significance, since induction still required the presence of an inducer. We show that regulation of transcription and activity of GNA1 involves a carbon source-dependent feedback cycle.

Additionally we found a function of GNA1 in hydrophobin regulation as well as effects on conidiation and tolerance of osmotic and oxidative stress.\n\nConclusion: We conclude that GNA1 transmits a signal the physiological relevance of which is dependent on both the carbon source as well as the light status. The widespread consequences of mutations in GNA1 indicate a broad function of this G alpha subunit in appropriation of intracellular resources to environmental (especially nutritional) conditions.”
“Objective To measure Selonsertib the presence of the alpha-sleep anomaly in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and to evaluate the association between the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern and the presence of musculoskeletal pain. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Sleep laboratory. Subjects Fifty-five consecutive adult FSHD patients, 26 women and 29 men, age 49.6 +/- 15.1 years (range 1876). Interventions Questionnaires and polysomnography. Outcome Measures Patients were asked to indicate if in the 3 months before the sleep study they presented persisting or recurring musculoskeletal pain.

Adult immune response depended largely on the magnitude of the ju

Adult immune response depended largely on the magnitude of the juvenile immune response regardless of the identity of the antigen in the juvenile immune challenge, and did not depend on neonatal IgY titres. Our results are consistent with a priming effect of early immune experience on adult stage immune responsiveness, but we found no evidence of carryover effects of yolk-derived antibodies on adult immunity.\n\n5. This study employs new methodology for investigation of maternal antibodies and presents results suggesting that further studies of maternal effects

on immunity will require careful consideration of the numerous ways maternally derived yolk components can impact the different types of immune response.”
“We present an analytical method for evaluating the first and second moments of the effective Selleckchem BMS-754807 exciton spatial distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) from measured emission patterns. Specifically, the suggested algorithm estimates the emission zone mean position

and width, respectively, from two distinct features of the pattern produced by interference between the emission sources and their images (induced by the reflective cathode): the angles in which interference extrema are observed, and the prominence of interference fringes. The relations between these parameters are derived rigorously for a general OLED

structure, indicating that extrema angles are related to the mean position of the radiating buy SIS3 excitons via Bragg’s condition, and the spatial broadening is related to the attenuation of the image-source interference prominence due to an averaging effect. The method is applied successfully both on simulated emission patterns and on experimental data, exhibiting a very good agreement with the results obtained by numerical techniques. We investigate the method performance in detail, showing that it is capable of producing accurate estimations for a wide range of source-cathode separation distances, provided that the measured spectral interval is large enough; guidelines Transferase inhibitor for achieving reliable evaluations are deduced from these results as well. As opposed to numerical fitting tools employed to perform similar tasks to date, our approximate method explicitly utilizes physical intuition and requires far less computational effort (no fitting is involved). Hence, applications that do not require highly resolved estimations, e.g., preliminary design and production-line verification, can benefit substantially from the analytical algorithm, when applicable. This introduces a novel set of efficient tools for OLED engineering, highly important in the view of the crucial role the exciton distribution plays in determining the device performance. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.