We show that decomposers can greatly alter the relative
availability of nutrients for plants. The type of limiting nutrient promoted by decomposers depends on their own elemental composition and, when applicable, on their ingestion by consumers. Our results highlight the limitations of previous stoichiometric Selleckchem GSK690693 theories of plant nutrient limitation control, which often ignored trophic levels other than plants and herbivores. They also suggest that detrital chains play an important role in determining plant nutrient limitation in many ecosystems.”
“Background: The filamentous ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is primarily known for its efficient enzymatic machinery that it utilizes to decompose cellulosic substrates. Nevertheless, the nature and transmission of the signals initiating and modulating this machinery are largely unknown. Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling represents one of the best studied signal transduction pathways in fungi.\n\nResults: Analysis of the regulatory targets of the G-protein a subunit GNA1 in H. jecorina revealed a carbon source and light-dependent role LY2157299 in signal transduction. Deletion of gna1 led to significantly decreased biomass formation in darkness in submersed culture but had only minor effects on morphology and hyphal apical extension rates on solid medium. Cellulase gene transcription
was abolished in Delta gna1 on cellulose in light and enhanced in darkness. However, analysis of strains expressing a constitutively activated GNA1 revealed that GNA1 does not transmit the essential inducing signal. Instead, it relates a modulating signal with light-dependent significance, since induction still required the presence of an inducer. We show that regulation of transcription and activity of GNA1 involves a carbon source-dependent feedback cycle.
Additionally we found a function of GNA1 in hydrophobin regulation as well as effects on conidiation and tolerance of osmotic and oxidative stress.\n\nConclusion: We conclude that GNA1 transmits a signal the physiological relevance of which is dependent on both the carbon source as well as the light status. The widespread consequences of mutations in GNA1 indicate a broad function of this G alpha subunit in appropriation of intracellular resources to environmental (especially nutritional) conditions.”
“Objective To measure Selonsertib the presence of the alpha-sleep anomaly in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and to evaluate the association between the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern and the presence of musculoskeletal pain. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Sleep laboratory. Subjects Fifty-five consecutive adult FSHD patients, 26 women and 29 men, age 49.6 +/- 15.1 years (range 1876). Interventions Questionnaires and polysomnography. Outcome Measures Patients were asked to indicate if in the 3 months before the sleep study they presented persisting or recurring musculoskeletal pain.