Bloch equation simulations were performed over a wide range of ve

Bloch equation simulations were performed over a wide range of velocities to evaluate the flow sensitivity of the SSFP-echo signal. Vessel walls of carotid and femoral and popliteal arteries were imaged at 3 T. In two patients with peripheral artery disease the femoral arteries were imaged bilaterally to demonstrate

method’s potential to visualize atherosclerotic plaques. The method was also evaluated as a means to measure femoral artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in response to cuff-induced ischemia in four subjects.

Results: The SSFP-echo pulse sequence, which does not have a dedicated blood signal suppression preparation, achieved low blood signal permitting discrimination of the carotid and peripheral arterial walls with in-plane

spatial resolution ranging PKC412 chemical structure from 0.5 to 0.69 mm and slice thickness of 2 to 3 mm, i.e. comparable to conventional 2D vessel-wall imaging techniques. The results of the simulations were in good agreement with analytical solution and observations for both vascular territories examined. Scan time ranged from 2.5 to 5 s per slice yielding a contrast-to-noise ratio between the vessel wall and lumen from 3.5 to 17. Mean femoral FMD in the four subjects was 9%, in good qualitative agreement with literature values.

Conclusions: Water-selective 3D SSFP-echo pulse sequence is a potential alternative to 2D vessel-wall imaging. The proposed method is fast, robust, applicable to a wide range of flow velocities, and straightforward to implement.”

selleck kinase inhibitor While metastasis ranks among the most lethal of all cancer-associated processes, on the molecular level, it remains one of the least well Selleck BMS-777607 understood. One model that has gained credibility in recent years is that metastasizing cells at least partially recapitulate the developmental process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in their transit from primary to metastatic sites. While experimentally supported by cell culture and animal model studies, the lack of unambiguous confirmatory evidence in cancer patients has led to persistent challenges to the model’s relevance in humans.

Methods: Gene expression profiling (Affymetrix, U133) was carried out on 14 matched sets of primary (ovary) and metastatic (omentum) ovarian cancer (serous adenocarcinoma) patient samples. Hierarchical clustering and functional pathway algorithms were used in the data analysis.

Results: While histological examination reveled no morphological distinction between the matched sets of primary and metastatic samples, gene expression profiling clearly distinguished two classes of metastatic samples. One class displayed expression patterns statistically indistinguishable from primary samples isolated from the same patients while a second class displayed expression patterns significantly different from primary samples.

In the SGA-CUG

group, the genotype SS of the COLIA1 gene

In the SGA-CUG

group, the genotype SS of the COLIA1 gene was associated with lower BMD. Therefore, IGF system and COLIA1 polymorphism distinguish prepubertal SGA-CUG children from the SGA+CUG children of the same age. Furthermore, COLIA1 polymorphism could be useful to predict osteopenia in SGA-CUG children.”
“Interactions among sympatric large predators and their prey and how they respond to conservation measures are poorly known. This study examines predictions concerning the effects of establishing a protected area in Nepal on tigers (Panthera tigris), leopards (Panthera pardus), and their ungulate prey. Within a part of the park, after 22 years the total density of wild ungulates had increased fourfold, to ca. 200 animals/km(2), almost exclusively due to a remarkable increase in chital deer (Axis axis). Tiger density also increased markedly to nearly 20 animals/100 km(2), whereas leopard density did not and was ca. 5 animals/ 100 km(2). The prediction that grazers should increase more than browsers was only partially supported. The prediction of positive density dependence in prey selection was not supported.

Instead, the most abundant species (chital and hog deer, Axis porcinus) were killed less frequently than expected, whereas the lower-density wild boar (Sus scrofa) was preferred. Predictions that (i) initially rare species suffer highest predation was partially supported,

that (ii) predation is highest among the most abundant prey was not supported, and that (iii) predation is highest among the most preferred prey independently DUB inhibitor of their densities was supported. Clearly, the conservation efforts adopted in Bardia were successful, as both tigers and their natural prey base increased. However, the positive numerical response of tigers limited and depressed the abundance of some prey species. Thus, conservation activities aimed at restoring large predators are likely to change in the composition of the overall mammal community, potentially this website eliminating rare but preferred prey species. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To determine maternal and fetal outcomes of women complicated with hyperthyroidism compared with those in normal pregnant women.

This cohort study was conducted on singleton pregnant women complicated by hyperthyroidism without other medical complications between January 1994 and December 2008, at tertiary center. The normal controls were identified to match the cases with the ratio of 2:1. The baseline characteristics as well as maternal and fetal outcomes were analyzed and compared for pregnancy outcomes.

Of the 203 pregnant women diagnosed for hyperthyroidism, 180 cases met the inclusion criteria, and 360 controls were matched. The activity of the disease was controlled to be euthyroid state in most cases.

Recent findings

Recent clinical and experimental findi

Recent findings

Recent clinical and experimental findings demonstrate a progressive improvement in the function and durability of islet allografts. Induction therapies targeting T lymphocytes and costimulatory pathways have been highly effective at promoting islet transplant function. It

is also apparent that islet injury associated with metabolic distress provides a nonimmune barrier to islet transplant outcomes.


Newer therapeutic interventions show great promise for attenuating the adaptive immune response to islet allografts. Also, clarifying the mechanisms of metabolic-related tissue distress may provide additional potential targets for improving islet graft outcomes.”
“Objective: This study aims to describe the endovascular management of abdominal-aortic- or common-iliac-artery injuries after lumbar-spine surgery.

Methods: Patients treated for abdominal-aortic- or common-iliac-artery Angiogenesis inhibitor injuries after lumbar-spine surgery during a 13-year period were identified from an endovascular database, providing prospective information on techniques and outcome. The corresponding patient records and radiographic reports were analysed retrospectively.

Results: Seven patients were treated with acute (n = 3) or Subacute (n = 4) injuries of the common iliac artery (n = 6)

or abdominal aorta (n = 1) after lumbar-spine surgery. Vascular injuries included arterial selleck chemicals lacerations (n = 3), arteriovenous fistulas (n = 2) and pseudo-aneurysms (n = 2). The mean age of the

patients was 51.7 years (30-60 years), 71.4% were women. These lesions were repaired by transluminal placement of stent grafts: Passager (n = 3), Viabahn (n = 1), Wallgraft (n = 1), Zenith (n = 1) and Advanta V12 (n = 1). Exclusion of the injury was achieved in all cases. Mortality was nil. There were no procedure-related complications. During a median follow-up of 8.7 years (range 0.3-13 years), all stent grafts remained patent.

Conclusions: Sealing of common iliac artery or abdominal aortic lesions as a complication of lumbar-disc surgery with a stent graft is effective and is suggested as an excellent alternative to open surgery for AZD2171 ic50 iatrogenic great-vessel injuries, particularly in critical conditions. (C) 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this work, thermoplastic starch (TPS)-clay bionanocomposites were obtained by an innovative methodology using a combination of methodologies commonly used in the composites and nanocomposites preparations. The main objectives or novelties were to confirm efficiency of the processing methodology by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy and investigate the effect of clay content on the spectroscopic, bulk and surface hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties of these bionanocomposites. Raman and FTIR spectroscopies confirmed the changes in the spectroscopic properties of the TPS bionanocomposites with the addition of the clay materials.

However, the crucial immunological role of the spleen in combatin

However, the crucial immunological role of the spleen in combating bacterial infections, MCC950 cost in particular pneumonias, has led to a search for splenic-preserving techniques whenever possible. Yet, laparoscopic partial splenectomies are still rarely described possibly due to difficulties in controlling intra-operative parenchymal bleeding during splenic transection.

Here, we present a case series of laparoscopic partial splenectomies using a new technique. The main splenic artery and vein were temporarily clamped using a detachable clip. Transection of the spleen was possible working with the LigaSure (TM) instrument. After transection, the margin was sealed with a collagen fleece.

In one case of a haemangioma, the patient underwent a radiological coil embolisation of the feeding arteries of the splenic pole in question. This was done 4 weeks prior to surgery and included embolisation of the tumour.

Three patients (2 males, 1 female, mean age 58.3 years) have been successfully treated using a detachable clamp. The pre-surgical mean size of the spleen was 8.0 x 16.7 cm (range 6 x 14-11

x 22 cm). The removed specimens had a mean size of 4.2 x 5.5 cm (range 2.5 selleck screening library x 4.0-5.0 x 6.5 cm). The time of surgery averaged 144 min (range 110-187 min). Blood loss was minimal thereby avoiding the need for blood transfusions. The post-surgical course was uneventful; patients were discharged 5 days following surgery. Histopathology showed a benign splenic haemangioma, a benign splenic hamartoma and the presence of Hodgkin’s disease stage III.

The technique of laparoscopic partial splenectomy and, in certain patients, pre-surgical partial splenic embolisation is safe and effective for patients with localised diseases of the spleen. This approach combines the benefits of the minimal surgical access with saving a significant amount of splenic tissue, thereby preserving the immune function of the spleen.”
“Purpose of review

This study reviews recent insights into racial differences in bone from 2010 to 2011.

Recent findings

Recent studies

have focused on expanding our current understanding of responsible mechanisms for racial differences in osteoporotic fracture risk. Using newer, three-dimensional imaging techniques, these studies demonstrated that racial differences in bone mass and structure are apparent GSK2879552 nmr early in adolescence, even when accounting for differences in bone size and muscle mass by race. In addition, recent studies using genetic admixture analysis showed that greater percentage of African admixture was independently associated with higher bone mass and more favorable parameters of bone strength in children and adults. Furthermore, recent studies showed that the relationships between 25-hydoxyvitamin D and bone outcomes differed by race, with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels being associated with lower bone quality and higher fracture risk in whites but not blacks.

However, the effects of applied voltage, flow rate, and molecular

However, the effects of applied voltage, flow rate, and molecular weight of chitosan were investigated on the size, size distribution, membrane thickness of the prepared capsules, as well as the release rate of BSA. The results revealed that by the method developed in this study, it AS1842856 nmr was possible to produce

spherical capsules with controlled size and narrow size distribution. Increasing the voltage and decreasing the flow rate reduced the radius of capsule and its shell thickness from 2.09 mm to 750 mu m and from 1.31 mm to 490 mu m, respectively. Furthermore, the molecular weight of chitosan had no significant effect on the capsules’ size and the release rate of BSA, whereas the rate of BSA release was increased with increase of the voltage. The later effect would be due to the increase of shell porosity at the higher voltages. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 322-328, 2010″
“Blood pressure (BP) measurement is the basis for the diagnosis and management of arterial hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare BP measurements performed in the office and at home (home blood pressure monitoring, HBPM) in children and adolescents MS-275 cell line with chronic arterial hypertension. HBPM was performed by the patient or by his/her legal guardian. During a 14-day period, three BP measurements were performed in the morning or in the afternoon

(daytime measurement) and in the evening (night-time measurement), with 1-min intervals between measurements, totalling six measurements per day. HBPM was defined for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values. HBPM was evaluated

in 40 patients (26 boys), mean age of 12.1 years (4-18 years). SBP and DBP records were analysed. The mean Napabucasin clinical trial differences between average HBP and doctor’s office BP were 0.6 +/- 14 and 4 +/- 13 mm Hg for SBP and DBP, respectively. Average systolic HBPM (daytime and night-time) did not differ from average office BP, and diastolic HBPM (daytime and night-time) was statistically lower than office BP. The comparison of individual BP measurements along the study period (13 days) by s.d. of differences shows a significant decline only for DBP values from day 5, on which difference tends to disappear towards the end of the study. Mean daytime and night-time SBP and DBP values remained stable throughout the study period, confirming HBPM as an acceptable methodology for BP evaluation in hypertensive children and adolescents. Journal of Human Hypertension (2009) 23, 464-469; doi:10.1038/jhh.2008.167; published online 12 March 2009″
“BackgroundWhereas the molecular mechanisms of skin aging are well understood, little information is available concerning the clinical onset and lifetime development of facial wrinkles.

Hall-effect tests reveal a transition from n-type to p-type condu

Hall-effect tests reveal a transition from n-type to p-type conduction when the growth temperature increases, which is explained by the suppression of Na interstitials Smoothened Agonist in vivo by codoping with H and Na of appropriate concentrations. An insulating intended Na-H codoped sample shows reduced resistivity and p-type conductivity after annealing at 550 degrees C, which

may be due to dissociation of Na-Zn-H complexes. The realization of p-type ZnO by Na-H codoping may explain the discrepancies in behavior of Na in ZnO and suggests the potential of Na-H codoping method [E.-C. Lee and K. J. Chang. Phys. Rev. B 70, 115210 (2004)]. (D 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3254221]“
“Background: Myelofibrosis (MF) is a rare and serious hematologic malignancy classified as a Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). The disease is more common

in males and in older individuals. Of the MPNs, MF presents with the most severe morbidity and greatest mortality. Although the cause of MF is unknown, it is thought to occur from acquired mutations that target the hematopoietic stem cell.

Methods: We reviewed the current literature pertaining to the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment of ME The strengths and limitations of present treatment options as well as Staurosporine price the emerging clinical experience with Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitors are explored.

Results: Diagnosis is often one of exclusion and is facilitated using the World Health Organization or International Working Group for Myelofibrosis Research and Treatment criteria, depending on whether primary or secondary MF is suspected. Treatment is complicated by a lack of disease familiarity of general practitioners and the JNJ-26481585 concentration advanced age of

presenting patients. Although allogeneic stem cell transplant offers a potential cure, most treatments for this condition are limited to symptomatic management, with little to no effect on survival. Appropriate patient assessment and risk stratification are essential for predicting outcomes and allowing treating physicians to tailor therapy accordingly.

Conclusions: Significant advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology of ME leading to novel therapeutic approaches. The discovery of the JAK2 mutation and the development of JAK2 inhibitors provide clinicians with a new effective treatment option. Ruxolitinib is the first JAK1/2 inhibitor approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with intermediate- or high-risk ME In clinical studies, ruxolitinib produced a significantly greater reduction in spleen size and improved quality of life compared with placebo or best available therapy. Several future therapies, including combination therapies with ruxolitinib, are currently under investigation.

BALB/c mice were divided into five groups Mice in the experiment

BALB/c mice were divided into five groups. Mice in the experimental groups received either the HKST vaccine alone or in combination with the adjuvant alum, naloxone or the alum-naloxone mixture. Mice in the negative control group received phosphate-buffered saline. All mice were immunized two times on days 0 and 14. Two weeks after the last immunization, immune responses ALK inhibitor to S. typhimurium were assessed. Our results indicated that the administration of the alum-naloxone mixture as an adjuvant increased

the ability of the HKST vaccine to enhance lymphocyte proliferation, shifted the immune response towards a T-helper 1 (Th1) pattern and increased S. typhimurium-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG2a, IgG1 and the ratio of IgG2a to IgG1. This resulted Dactolisib in improved protective immunity against S. typhimurium. In conclusion, the administration of the alum-naloxone mixture as an adjuvant, in combination with the HKST vaccine, can enhance both humoral and cellular immunity and shift the immune responses to a Th1 pattern.”
“We employ a Monte Carlo method to investigate the carrier dynamics in the terahertz quantum cascade lasers with vertical and diagonal radiative transition designs. Electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering are included in

the calculations and their effects on the temperature dependence of electron transport are evaluated. The simulation shows that the degradation of temperature performance

is mainly due to the rapid electron relaxation from upper to lower laser levels, in which the electron-phonon interaction is the dominant scattering mechanism. The parasitic coupling between laser levels is weakened in the diagonal design, resulting in better device performance such as lower current density, higher operating temperature, and less hot electron effects. The calculations are in good agreement with experimental results. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3505675]“
“Background: High stearic acid (STA) soybean oil is a trans-free, oxidatively stable, non-LDL-cholesterol-raising SNS-032 mw oil that can be used to replace trans fatty acids (TFAs) in solid fat applications.

Objective: The objective was to assess the cardiovascular health effects of dietary STA compared with those of trans, other saturated, and unsaturated fatty acids.

Design: We reviewed epidemiologic and clinical studies that evaluated the relation between STA and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including plasma lipids and lipoproteins, hemostatic variables, and inflammatory markers.

Results: In comparison with other saturated fatty acids, STA lowered LDL cholesterol, was neutral with respect to HDL cholesterol, and directionally lowered the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol.

We provide an update on world-wide regulatory requirements Also,

We provide an update on world-wide regulatory requirements. Also, we list all possible benefits of forced degradation studies Givinostat to assess the stability of drugs and products. We discuss the kind of forced degradation study likely to meet regulatory expectations. We include the knowledge gained from these studies within the Quality by Design paradigm. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Orthogonal high-resolution separations are critical for attaining improved analytical dynamic range and protein coverage in proteomic measurements. High-pH reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), followed by fraction concatenation, affords better peptide analysis

than conventional strong cation-exchange chromatography applied for 2D proteomic analysis. For example, concatenated high-pH RPLC increased identification of peptides (by 1.8-fold) and proteins (by 1.6-fold) in shotgun JNJ-26481585 proteomics analyses of a digested human protein sample. Additional advantages of high-pH RPLC with fraction concatenation include improved protein sequence coverage, simplified sample processing and reduced sample losses, making this an attractive alternative to strong cation-exchange chromatography in conjunction with second-dimension low-pH RPLC for 2D proteomics analyses.”
“Objectives: We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, its determinants, and its relationships to physical performance, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration, bone

mineral density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover In healthy, ambulatory, pre- and postmenopausal women.

Methods: The group Studied included 415 women aged 24 to 77 years. Between July and September, we assessed calcium intake and measured serum calcium, phosphorus, albumin, alkaline phosphate, IPI-549 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), PTH, osteocalcin, and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of Type I collagen. We also measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry in the spine and total femur. Three tests were used to assess physical performance: timed get-up-and-go test, 5-times-sit-to-stand test, and 2.4 m speed walk.

Results: The prevalence of vitamin E)

insufficiency (<30 ng/mL) was 91%. In multiple logistic regression, the main determinants of hypovitaminosis D were age >55 years (OR 2.14 [95% IC, 1.1-4.1; P = 0.026)], wearing a veil [OR 2 (95% IC, 1.1-4; P = 0.04)], time spent outdoors less than 30 min/d [OR 2.8 (95% IC: 1.4-5.7; P = 0.003)], and daily calcium intake less than 700 mg [OR 2.39 (95% IC, 1.2-4.7; P<0.001. A significant inverse correlation between 25 OH and osteocalcin (r = -0,18,P< 0001), 25 OH, and Type I collagen (r = -0,15, P = 0003) were observed. By Locally Weighted Regression and Scatterplot Smoothing technique, there was an increase in PTH level when S-25(OH)D was below 30 ng/mL. After adjustment for age, both spine BMD and total femoral BMD failed to show any significant correlation with serum 25(OH)D and PTH.

In this study, it was

In this study, it was Histone Methyltransf inhibitor established for the first time that not only do smoke flavour compounds complex with iron which could potentially retard food spoilage, but also after complexation, some complexes attain antimicrobial activities compared to the inactive free ligands.”

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of parent-assisted or nurse-assisted epidural analgesia (PNEA) for control of postoperative pain in a pediatric surgical population.



the institutional review board (IRB) approval was obtained, an analysis of our pain treatment services database of pediatric surgical patients with epidural catheters in whom the parent and/or nurse were empowered to activate the epidural demand-dose button was evaluated.


Over a 10 -year period between 1999 and 2008, 128

procedures in 126 patients were provided parent or nurse assistance of the epidural demand dose. Satisfactory analgesia was obtained in 86% of patients with no or minor adjustments in PNEA parameters. Fourteen percent of patients were converted to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for inadequate analgesia (7%) or side effects (7%). None of the patients in this cohort required treatment for respiratory depression or excessive sedation.


Parent-assisted or nurse-assisted epidural analgesia can be safely administered to children undergoing surgery who are physically find more or cognitively unable or unwilling

to self-activate a demand dose. Additional studies are needed to compare the efficacy of PNEA with other modalities for postoperative pain control in children.”
“Continued advancements in congenital cardiac catheterization and interventions have resulted in increased patient and procedural complexity. Anticipation of life-threatening events and required rescue measures PD-L1 inhibitor cancer is a critical component to preprocedural preparation. We sought to determine the incidence and nature of life-threatening adverse events in congenital and pediatric cardiac catheterization, risk factors, and resources necessary to anticipate and manage events. Data from 8905 cases performed at the 8 participating institutions of the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes were captured between 2007 and 2010 [median 1,095/site (range 133-3,802)]. The incidence of all life-threatening events was 2.1 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-2.4 %], whereas mortality was 0.28 % (95 % CI 0.18-0.41 %). Fifty-seven life-threatening events required cardiopulmonary resuscitation, whereas 9 % required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Use of a risk adjustment model showed that age < 1 year [odd ratio (OR) 1.9, 95 % CI 1.4-2.7, p < 0.001], hemodynamic vulnerability (OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.1-2.3, p < 0.01), and procedure risk (category 3: OR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.3-4.1; category 4: OR 4.2, 95 % CI 2.4-7.

Assessment may also be complicated by overlap between the manifes

Assessment may also be complicated by overlap between the manifestations of apathy and other complications of HD such as depression, so the identification and treatment of these comorbid conditions is important. No adequate evidence currently supports any specific pharmacologic or psychological intervention for apathy in HD. Rabusertib datasheet Evidence can only be extrapolated from interventional studies done in other basal ganglia disorders such as Parkinson’s disease or other neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia. The neurobiology of apathy points towards three areas of

functional connectivity: connections between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basal ganglia, orbitomedial PFC and basal ganglia, and dorsomedial PFC and basal ganglia. Pharmacologic interventions such as cholinesterase inhibitors, the dopaminergic antidepressant bupropion, amantadine, levodopa, bromocriptine, methylphenidate, and atypical antipsychotics have all been tried in other neurodegenerative disorders, but not in HD. Psychosocial Ilomastat datasheet interventions such as cognitive stimulation therapy and multisensory stimulation, which have been used in patients with dementia, have not been properly studied in HD. Individualized treatment

should be considered, using a combination of methods, as there is no evidence to support one particular type of treatment. Multidisciplinary input, environmental modifications, improved psychosocial support, and psychoeducation programs designed to help caregivers to understand and compensate for the deficits caused by this symptom may all MEK pathway have a role to play

in the treatment of apathy.”
“Freeze-dried leaf, stem bark, and root bark powders of Aegiceras corniculatum were extracted with three different types of polar solvents: methanol, ethyl acetate, and water. The methanol extracts had the highest concentrations in total phenolics and extractable condensed tannins, followed by water and ethyl acetate extracts. Analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) suggested that condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark, and root bark contained prodelphinidins and procyanidins, with the predominance of prodelphinidins and high level of galloylation. Acid-catalyzed degradation in the presence of benzyl mercaptan indicated that gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, and epicatechin-3-O-gallate occurred as the terminal units and (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)gallocatechin-3-O-gallate, (epi)catechin, and (epi)catechin-3-O-gallate occurred as the extension units. The mean degrees of polymerization (mDP) of condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark, and root bark were 13.5, 7.4, and 12.3, respectively. The condensed tannins from leaf and stem bark exhibited a higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power compared to that of synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.