Serologic testing for antibodies against E cuniculi was also per

Serologic testing for antibodies against E. cuniculi was also performed in 100 ophthalmologically healthy cats.

Results Eleven (19 eyes) European shorthair cats with a median age of 3.5 years were included. Nine of 11 cats had bilateral cataracts, with 12/19 eyes having focal anterior cortical cataracts and 7/19 eyes having mature cataracts. In 14/19 eyes anterior uveitis was present. All cats had a positive antibody titer (1:80-1:10 000) for E. cuniculi. Encephalitozoon cuniculi DNA was detected by PCR and sequencing in 18/19 lenses and in 10/19 aqueous samples. Five tentative

positive results were detected by cytologic examination. Spores were detected in 15/19 samples of lens material with histopathologic staining. Only 2/100 ophthalmologically healthy cats showed a positive antibody titer for E. cuniculi.

Conclusion Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a cause of focal anterior cortical AG-14699 cataract and anterior uveitis in CP-456773 solubility dmso cats.”
“Introduction: Traumatic chest injuries may occur following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of this study was to address the frequency of injuries, especially rib and sternal fractures, and also to identify factors that contribute to post-CPR trauma.

Methods: This study was a prospective cross-sectional

study conducted in the emergency departments (ED) of eight academic tertiary care centers. To evaluate injuries secondary to CPR, we performed chest computed tomography (CT) in patients who were successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Contributing factors that might be related to injuries were also investigated.

Results: We enrolled 71 patients between 1 January 2011 and 30 June 2011. Rib and sternal fractures were diagnosed in 22 and 3 patients, respectively. Females were more susceptible to rib fracture (p = 0.036). When non-physicians participated as chest compressors in the ED, more ribs

were fractured EPZ5676 supplier (p = 0.048). The duration of CPR and number of compressors were not contributing factors to trauma secondary to CPR. There was a wide variation in the frequency of rib fractures from hospital to hospital (0-83.3%). In high-risk hospitals (in which more than 50% of patients had rib fractures), the average age of the patients was higher, and non-physicians took part in ED CPR more often than they did at low-risk hospitals.

Conclusion: The incidence of rib fracture following CPR was different in various hospitals. The presence of non-physician chest compressors in the ED was one of the contributing factors to rib fracture. Further studies on the influence of resuscitators and relation between quality of chest compression and CPR-induced injuries are warranted to reduce complications following CPR. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Monoclonal antibodies are widely used for the treatment of cancer, inflammatory and infectious diseases and other disorders.

faecalis dentin infection was present in a high percentage of the

faecalis dentin infection was present in a high percentage of the root canals after 120 days of root filling exposure to the bacteria. Tagger’s hybrid technique presented greater quantity of bacteria in histologic sections than root canals obturated with the other techniques. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 788-794)”
“P>Arabidopsis

thaliana reticulate mutants exhibit differential pigmentation of the veinal and interveinal leaf regions, a visible phenotype that often indicates impaired mesophyll development. We performed a metabolomic analysis of one PXD101 ven6 (venosa6) and three ven3 reticulate mutants that revealed altered levels of arginine precursors, namely increased ornithine and reduced citrulline levels. In addition, the mutants were more sensitive than the wild-type to exogenous ornithine, and leaf reticulation and mesophyll defects of these mutants were completely rescued by exogenous citrulline. Taken together, these results indicate that ven3 and ven6 mutants experience a blockage of the conversion of ornithine into citrulline in the arginine pathway. Consistent with the participation of VEN3 and VEN6 in the same pathway, the morphological phenotype of ven3

ven6 double mutants was synergistic. Map-based cloning showed that the VEN3 and VEN6 genes encode subunits of Arabidopsis carbamoyl phosphate GDC-0941 nmr synthetase (CPS), which is assumed to be required for the conversion of ornithine into citrulline in arginine biosynthesis. Heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis VEN3 and

VEN6 genes in a CPS-deficient Escherichia coli strain fully restored bacterial growth in minimal medium, demonstrating the enzymatic activity of the VEN3 and VEN6 proteins, and indicating a conserved role for CPS in these distinct and distant species. Detailed study of the reticulate ARN-509 price leaf phenotype in the ven3 and ven6 mutants revealed that mesophyll development is highly sensitive to impaired arginine biosynthesis.”
“Background: NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) is known for its protective role in skin carcinogenesis, but the expression of NQO-1 during keratinocyte (KC) differentiation has not been studied.

Objective: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate modulation of NQO-1 and NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) during MC differentiation.

Methods: Normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) were induced to differentiation by prolonged culture after confluency (postconfluence).

Results: NQO-1 was induced at the late stage of differentiation of NHEKs (7th day of postconfluence). The expression of postconfluence-induced NQO-1 was stimulated by 0.1 mM H(2)O(2), but attenuated by 5 mM N-acetylcysteine, implying that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in the expression of NQO-1 in differentiated KCs. Nrf2 was up-regulated at the earlier than NQO-1 induction (3rd day of postconfluence). The Nrf2-dependent expression of NQO-1 was further supported by Nrf2-siRNA experiments.


“Study Design Retrospective

analysis of breast ca


“Study Design. Retrospective

analysis of breast cancer patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) undergoing surgery and radiation therapy.

Objective. To assess feasibility and clinical outcome of multidisciplinary approach in breast cancer patients with MESCC.

Summary of Background Data. Studies so far published in the setting of surgery and/or radiotherapy selleck chemicals in the management of MESCC usually included many malignancies, without considering the different primary histology. However, when looking at prognostic variables of this therapy, histological type comes out as a major determinant of outcome.

Methods. Twenty-three patients with symptomatic MESCC from breast cancer treated between January 2004 and April 2009 were included in this analysis. Selleck Proteasome inhibitor Twenty-six surgical procedures followed by radiotherapy were performed. Clinical outcome and local recurrence was evaluated by modified visual analog scale for pain, Frankel scale for neurologic deficit, and magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scans. Twenty-three cases (88.4%) had back pain before treatment with a visual analog scale score 6 or greater; neurologic deficit (FS A-D) was present

in 19 cases (65.5%).

Results. Complete remission of pain, lasting until death or progression of disease in another skeletal site, was obtained in 25/26 cases (96.1%). All patients had complete recovery of neurologic deficit. No major morbidity occurred. No patients had recurrence in the site of treatment. Median survival was 36 months (range, 3-60) and overall survival at one, three, and five years was 70%, 42%, and 34%, respectively.

Conclusion. We provided evidence of surgery and radiotherapy to be feasible with limited morbidity. see more Clinical outcome has been highly satisfactory in terms of pain and local disease control. The discussion of each case within a multidisciplinary team is of central importance in defining the most appropriate therapeutic approach.”
“Idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

(MPGN) is a rare cause of renal failure with a cumulative incidence of 0.3% of all ESRD and 4% of all primary glomerulonephritis for types I and II. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type III is more uncommon and idiopathic de novo MPGN III in a renal transplant patient has not been reported. We present the case of a 57-year old white female patient with a diagnosis of lithium toxicity as cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) who developed MPGN III in her allograft 6 years after a renal transplant. Despite treatment, she progressed to ESRD within four and a half years from the time of diagnosis.”
“We report a 68-year-old woman who experienced visual hallucinations diagnosed as peduncular hallucinosis (PH) following microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. Postoperative MRI showed only ischemic oedema of the left cerebellar hemisphere due to retraction.

(C) 2009 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“Background

(C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background

Planning reconstruction for facial defects should include the safest and least-invasive methods, PXD101 cell line with a goal of achieving optimal functional and cosmetic outcomes.

Objective

To compare tissue-engineered dermis grafts with artificial dermis grafts after removal of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) on the face.

Materials and Methods

A tissue-engineered dermis composed of autologous cultured dermal fibroblasts seeded on a hyaluronic acid sheet was applied to 16 patients. Grafting of hyaluronic acid sheets that did not contain fibroblasts (artificial dermis group) was performed in 13 patients. Healing time,

scar condition, and patient satisfaction were compared.

Results

The wounds of the tissue-engineered dermis group reepithelialized after 31.4 +/- 5.3days and those of the artificial dermis group after 34.2 +/- 4.9days. The tissue-engineered dermis graft was superior in scar quality. In particular,

statistically significant www.selleckchem.com/products/btsa1.html differences were detected in the height and contracture of scars, although there were no significant differences in terms of scar texture or color match. Patient satisfaction in the tissue-engineered dermis graft group (8.3 +/- 1.0) was also statistically superior to that in the artificial dermis group (6.9 +/- 1.4).

Conclusion

The tissue-engineered dermis graft is superior to the artificial dermis graft for covering defects after removal of BCC on the face.”
“Splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) are the third most common forms of intra-abdominal aneurysm, and the most commonly encountered visceral aneurysms in the general population. SAAs occur more commonly in patients with portal hypertension and liver failure and, as such, are click here often encountered in patients undergoing high-resolution abdominal imaging as part of

a work-up for liver transplantation. While rupture rates of between 2% and 10% have been reported in the literature, little is known about the natural history and behavior of these lesions in patients with liver disease. Interventional management options pose a challenge given the high anesthetic and surgical risk of such patients. This study was conducted to study the management of all SAAs diagnosed among patients presenting for a liver transplant assessment at a single center over a three-yr period. We discuss the presentation and management options, with elective and emergent presentation of SAA in patients with end-stage liver disease.”
“Magnetic tunnel junctions with the magnetization perpendicular to the plane of the layers can be switched between configurations with parallel or antiparallel magnetization of the layers using spin-polarized currents. Here we use finite-temperature micromagnetic modeling to study the switching behavior of such structures.

Also, a 714-bp region structured in 5 0 tandem repeats of 143 bp

Also, a 714-bp region structured in 5.0 tandem repeats of 143 bp each was found in the 5′UTR of the degenerate element; these could interact with transcription factor CF2. Phylogenetic analysis and alignment of amino acids indicated that the Pifo_I element was closer to the ZAM retrotransposon, which gave us some clues to their functional similarity. Based on these data, we propose that there is a relationship between the degenerate element and the mutant phenotype, which would provide a foundation for further research.”
“Structure-activity relationships (SARs) were sought among protocatechuic aldehyde Nutlin-3 order 1 syringaldehyde 2 vanillin 3 p-hydroxybenzaldehyde

4 and salicylaldehyde 5 using various in vitro antioxidant assays (crocin bleaching assay ABTS DPPH Rancimat and liposomes) These aldehydes are known to contribute to the evolution of flavor during aging of alcoholic beverages in wood barrels and as natural preservatives Their acid counterparts (1′-5′) were also studied for comparison The non-substituted hydroxybenzaldehydes (4 5) and the respective acids showed negligible activity under the CBA DPPH and the accelerated bulk oil oxidation conditions so that no SAR could be drawn The only compound that exhibited high antioxidant

activity equal or even higher than 1 in all assay environments was 1 Syringaldehyde was found to possess exceptionally high activity in comparison to 2′ only under the CBA conditions Moreover 1 and 2 were found selleck kinase inhibitor to be strong inhibitors of bulk oil or of lecithin liposome oxidation Our findings add to knowledge about the antioxidant activity of the particular aldehydes apart from their flavoring and antibacterial properties (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved”
“A rapid and accurate isocratic HPLC method was developed and validated for the assay

of Efavirenz (EFA) in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic conditions comprise of a Novapak phenyl column. A mixture of phosphate buffer and Acetonitrile was used as mobile phase. Quantitation was achieved by UV detection at 247 nm. A linear response (r(2) >= 0.999) was observed in the range of 0.05 – 0.15 mg/mL. The method was validated for accuracy this website and precision. The proposed method can be used for quality control assay of EFA in bulk and in finished dosage form and for the stability studies as the method separates EFA from its degradation products and excipients.”
“Polymorphisms of the CART gene were investigated by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis in 540 samples from 10 goat breeds. Ten novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms as well as three microsatellites were detected; a mutation, 77T -> C, led to an amino acid change (Leu -> Ser). Associations between polymorphic loci and reproductive traits were analyzed in Chuandong White, Guizhou White and Gulin Ma breeds. Mutation at position 524 had no significant effect on litter size in these three goat breeds.

We examined breast milk for rotavirus-specific IgA and neutralizi

We examined breast milk for rotavirus-specific IgA and neutralizing Liproxstatin-1 activity against 3 rotavirus vaccine strains-RV1, RV5 G1, and 116E using enzyme immunoassays. The inhibitory effect of breast milk on RV1 was further examined by a plaque reduction assay.

Findings: Breast milk from Indian women had the highest IgA and neutralizing titers against all 3 vaccine strains, while lower but comparable median IgA and neutralizing titers were detected in breast milk from Korean and Vietnamese women, and the lowest titers were seen in American women. Neutralizing activity was greatest against the 2 vaccine strains of human origin,

RV1 and 116E. This neutralizing activity in one half of the breast milk specimens from Indian women could reduce the effective titer of RV1 by similar to 2 logs, of 116E by 1.5 logs, and RV5 G1 strain by similar to 1 log more than that of breast milk from American women.

Interpretation: The lower immunogenicity and efficacy of rotavirus vaccines in poor developing countries could be explained, in part, by higher BIX-01294 titers of IgA and neutralizing activity in breast milk consumed by their infants at the

time of immunization that could effectively reduce the potency of the vaccine. Strategies to overcome this negative effect, such as delaying breast-feeding at the time Navitoclax chemical structure of immunization, should be evaluated.”
“Self-diffusion was studied in magnetron sputtered nitrogen-rich amorphous compounds of the system Si-C-N by using nitrogen as a model tracer. As shown by infra-red spectroscopy a transient metastable region exists, where the structure of the material can be visualized as silicon nitride tetrahedra which are connected by carbo-diimide (-N=C=N-) bonds to a three dimensional amorphous network. In this region diffusion studies are carried out by neutron reflectometry and isotope multilayers as a function

of annealing time, temperature and chemical composition. Low diffusivities between 10(-20) and 10(-24) m(2)/s were found. In the metastable region, diffusion is faster than diffusion in amorphous silicon nitride by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, while the activation enthalpies of diffusion between 3.1 and 3.4 eV are the same within error limits. This can be explained by the fact that the diffusion mechanism along SiN(4) tetrahedra is identical to that in amorphous silicon nitride, however, the carbo-diimide bonds seem to widen the structure, allowing faster diffusion. A correlation between diffusivities and the number of carbo-diimid bonds present in the material is found, where the highest diffusivities are observed for materials with the highest number of carbo-diimid bonds, close to the composition Si(2)CN(4). (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.


“We present a dramatic case of a patient presenting with d


“We present a dramatic case of a patient presenting with disseminated intravascular coagulation related to meningococcal sepsis who developed

heparin-induced thrombocytopenia following heparin administration during continuous renal replacement therapy. Association of these two prothrombotic conditions led to severe limbs ischemia and finally to bilateral legs amputation. We stress the importance of suspect heparin-induced thrombocytopenia Bindarit research buy in intensive care unit patients, especially when an improvement of other coagulation parameters is observed, and heparin therapy was started.”
“Irinotecan is a promising anticancer agent for the treatment of childhood cancer unresponsive to conventional chemotherapy. Its SC79 clinical trial active metabolite, 7-ethyl-10 hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) is glucuronidated by a uridine-diphosphoglucuronosyl-transferase (UGT1A1) to form an inactive metabolite. It was supposed that patients with the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism would have a greater prevalence of elevated pretreatment serum bilirubin levels and higher toxicity. The aim of our study was to investigate the predictive value of pre-treatment bilirubin levels in the development of severe diarrhea in solid tumor patients treated with irinotecan. The survey included 14 pediatric patients with refractory sarcomas treated with irinotecan (CPT-11). Patients were grouped based on the development of mild (G0-2)

or severe (G3) gastrointestinal toxicity. The simple linear regression model and the non-parametric paired Wilcoxon test were adopted for the analysis. P<0.05 was judged to indicate a significant difference. The results showed a significant increase in severity of diarrhea with increasing total pre-treatment bilirubin. Therefore, we propose that pre-treatment bilirubin DAPT ic50 levels can predict gastrointestinal toxicity in pediatric cancer.”
“Background : Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a recently identified mitochondrial inner membrane anion carrier and a negative regulator of reactive oxygen species production. In

this study, we evaluated the characteristics and relationships of UCP2 and p53 expression in breast cancer tissues. Methods : Tissue microarray slides from 107 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast were constructed, UCP2 and p53 immunohistochemical staining was conducted, and clinicopathological correlations were investigated. Results : UCP2 expression in invasive ductal carcinoma was high in 53 cases (49.5%), while p53 expression in invasive ductal carcinoma was high in 37 cases (34.6%). UCP2 expression was correlated significantly with histological grade (p = 0.038) and mitotic count (p = 0.050). UCP2 expression was correlated significantly with p53 expression in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (p = 0.045). UCP2 expression (p = 0.8308) and p53 expression (p = 0.

DESIGN: Between 1994 and 1997, an active case-finding programme w

DESIGN: Between 1994 and 1997, an active case-finding programme was implemented in homeless shelters using a mobile radiological screening unit, and continued from 1997 to 2007. During these periods, the strains isolated from TB cases diagnosed in the homeless were genotyped by restriction fragment

length polymorphism analysis using the insertion sequence IS6110 as a probe.

RESULTS: Between 1994 and 2007, 313 new TB cases were diagnosed among the homeless population: 179 through the programme among shelter users, and 134 among homeless people not using shelters. Half of the strains were clustered in 35 distinct patterns (2-48 cases/cluster). The clustering of TB cases steadily decreased in shelters during the 13 years of the survey, from 14.3 to 2.7 related cases per year (P < 0.01) and from 75% to 30% of related

cases among all TB cases (P < 0.01). In contrast, there was PP2 order only a slight trend towards a decrease in homeless people not using shelters.

CONCLUSION: Active case finding in homeless shelters resulted in a decrease in case clustering, mainly in shelter users. Genotyping contributed to confirming the positive impact WH-4-023 of the intervention.”
“The superficial layers of the superior colliculus (sSC) appear to function as a subcortical visual pathway that bypasses the striate cortex for the rapid processing of coarse facial information. We investigated the responses of neurons in the monkey sSC during a delayed non-matching-to-sample (DNMS) task in which monkeys were required to discriminate among five categories of visual stimuli [photos of faces with different gaze directions, line drawings of faces, face-like patterns (three dark blobs on a bright oval), eye-like patterns, and simple geometric patterns]. Of the 605 sSC neurons recorded, 216 neurons responded to the visual stimuli. Among the stimuli, face-like patterns elicited responses with the

shortest latencies. Low-pass filtering of the images did not influence the responses. However, scrambling of the images increased HSP inhibitor the responses in the late phase, and this was consistent with a feedback influence from upstream areas. A multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of the population data indicated that the sSC neurons could separately encode face-like patterns during the first 25-ms period after stimulus onset, and stimulus categorization developed in the next three 25-ms periods. The amount of stimulus information conveyed by the sSC neurons and the number of stimulus-differentiating neurons were consistently higher during the 2nd to 4th 25-ms periods than during the first 25-ms period. These results suggested that population activity of the sSC neurons preferentially filtered face-like patterns with short latencies to allow for the rapid processing of coarse facial information and developed categorization of the stimuli in later phases through feedback from upstream areas.

There was no immediate change in knee pain during walking when me

There was no immediate change in knee pain during walking when medial arch supports were worn (P = 0.56).

Conclusions: This study showed no mean change in any of the measured indices of medial knee load with medial arch supports. No immediate changes in knee pain were evident. (C) 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights HKI-272 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor reserved.”
“Purpose of review

To present an updated summary of the relationship between joint shape and the development of osteoarthritis, with a particular focus on osteoarthritis of the hip.

Recent findings

Osteoarthritis

of the hip is highly heritable, with a genetic contribution estimated at 60%. Among the genes that have been linked to this disease ASP2215 price are several that are involved in the development and maintenance of joint shape, including members of the Wingless (Wnt) and the bone morphogenetic protein

(BMP) family. Several features of hip joint architecture, such as acetabular dysplasia, pistol grip deformity, wide femoral neck, altered femoral neck-shaft angle, appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and may predate the development of osteoarthritis by decades.

Summary

Gene-environment interactions play a crucial role in the development of osteoarthritis. The architecture of joint shape is determined by a complex sequence spanning embryonic, find more childhood, and adult life and contributes to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.”
“Objective: Literature examining the effects of total hip arthroplasty (THA) on subsequent body weight gain is inconclusive. Determining the extent to which clinically relevant weight gain occurs following THA has important public health implications.

Design: We used multi-variable logistic regression to compare data from one of the largest US-based THA registries to a population-based control sample from the same geographic region. We also identified factors that increased risk of clinically important weight gain specifically among persons

undergoing THA. The outcome measure of interest was weight gain of >= 5% of body weight up to 5 years following surgery.

Results: The multi-variable adjusted [age, sex, body mass index (BMI), education, comorbidity and presurgical weight change] odds ratio for important weight gain was 1.7 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 2.6] for a person with THA as compared to the control sample. Additional arthroplasty procedures during the 5-year follow-up further increased odds for important weight gain (OR = 2.0, 95% CI, 1.4, 2.7) relative to the control sample. A patient with THA had increased risk of important post-surgical weight gain of 12% (OR = 1.12, 95% CI, 1.08, 1.16) for every kilogram of pre-operative weight loss.

In preclinical research, neuropathic pain models of nerve injury

In preclinical research, neuropathic pain models of nerve injury with varied etiology like partial sciatic nerve ligation (PNL), chronic constricted injury (CCI) and spinal nerve ligation (SNL) are employed to screen the analgesic drugs to treat symptoms like allodynia and hyperalgesia. The current study was aimed to validate and compare conventionally used Von Frey monofilaments and automated dynamic plantar aesthesiometer using three different pain models. Methods: PNL, CCI and SNL rats were used to compare and validate the assessment of neuropathic pain using Von Frey monofilaments and automated dynamic plantar aesthesiometer. Results: Mechanical

allodynia was assessed at various time points to mimic drug testing conditions in CBL0137 ic50 neuropathic pain

models and anticipated to observe reliable and reproducible paw withdrawal threshold measurements selleck across these models. Consistent paw withdrawal thresholds were observed in all the three models of neuropathic pain with Von Frey monofilaments, whereas variable paw withdrawal thresholds were noticed in PNL and CCI models but not in SNL model with dynamic plantar aesthesiometer. Discussion: Manually used Von Frey filaments can be used in assessment of mechanical allodynia in all the three models, whereas dynamic plantar aesthesiometer is suitable for assessing mechanical allodynia in SNL but not in PNL and CCI models. The reason for variable paw withdrawal thresholds during assessment ERK inhibitor of mechanical allodynia in PNL and CCI models with dynamic plantar aesthesiometer may be due to the paw deformity and change in foot posture. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A thin endometrium is one of the most difficult problems encountered in assisted reproduction every day practice. Whether a daily dose of 150 IU HCG for 7 days concomitant with estrogen administration in estrogen replacement cycles

can increase the endometrial thickness and improve pregnancy outcome, was the objective of the current study.

Seventeen infertile patients with successive implantation failures and resisting thin endometrium, being recipients of fresh donor or frozen embryos were recruited. This was a prospective cohort, proof of concept study, NCT01768247. On day-8 or 9 of the estrogen administration, and continuing 8 mg estrogen per day, subcutaneous injections of 150 IU HCG were initiated daily for 7 days. After a week on HCG priming, (day-14 or 15) endometrial thickness was controlled with ultrasound, and progesterone was initiated.

Mean endometrial thickness was increased from 5.2 mm to 6 mm (p = 0.008). 35.3 % of the patients had more than 20 % improvement of their endometrial thickness after HCG priming. 17 % achieved an endometrial thickness more than 7 mm, and 29.4 % did not improve their thickness at all. Interestingly, from the later two became pregnant. Overall, 41 % of them (7/17) finally delivered.