When the cohort was stratified by sex, ACE rs4362 and AGT rs699 s

When the cohort was stratified by sex, ACE rs4362 and AGT rs699 showed significant associations with WMLs in men only (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively), and remained significant after controlling for hypertension. Although the AGTR1 SNP did not show any association with WMLs, the interaction of the AGT rs699 and AGTR1 rs5182 SNPs with WMLs was significant before (P = 0.03) and after adjustment for hypertension

(P = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS The results provide evidence for association of polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system genes with WMLs, independent of hypertension. Male-only associations with WMLs were found for the AGT rs699 and ACE rs362 polymorphisms. Moreover, for PXD101 clinical trial the entire sample an interaction between AGT and AGTR1 rs5182 genotypes on WMLs was observed.”
“Objective: To investigate the follicular size at spontaneous rupture on pregnancy rate in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing clomiphene citrate (CC) ovulation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Patients and methods: One hundred and four women with ovulatory cycles after Selumetinib price use of CC followed by ultrasound to determine the follicle

size at the time of rupture, which was subsequently correlated with the occurrence of pregnancy or not in colt cycles. Results: In the group of follicular rupture at a mean diameter smaller than = 25 mm (n = 54), pregnancy rate was 35.1% and when follicular rupture occurred at a mean diameter bigger than 25 mm (n = 50), it was 34% (p bigger than 0.05). When different diameters at follicular rupture were randomly correlated with the pregnancy rate, there was no significant difference. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the occurrence of pregnancy after ovulation induction with CC in women with PCOS is not associated with follicle size at the time of rupture.”
“Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major health problem worldwide, and patients have a particularly poor 5-year survival rate. Thus, identification of the molecular targets in OSCC and subsequent innovative therapies are greatly Buparlisib needed. Prolonged exposure to alcohol,

tobacco, and pathogenic agents are known risk factors and have suggested that chronic inflammation may represent a potential common denominator in the development of OSCC. Microarray analysis of gene expression in OSCC cell lines with high basal NF-kappa B activity and OSCC patient samples identified dysregulation of many genes involved in inflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis, and growth regulation. In particular IL-8, CCL5, STAT1, and VEGF gene expression was up-regulated in OSCC. Moreover, IL-8 protein levels were significantly higher in OSCC cell lines as compared with normal human oral keratinocytes. Targeting IL-8 expression by siRNA significantly reduced the survival of OSCC cells, indicating that it plays an important role in OSCC development and/or progression.

Sanguinarine-mediated apoptosis was substantially blocked by ecto

Sanguinarine-mediated apoptosis was substantially blocked by ectopic expression of selleck inhibitor Bcl-2 and cFLIPs. Additionally, we found that sub-lethal doses of sanguinarine remarkably sensitized breast cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, but the cell death induced by sanguinarine

and TRAIL in combination was not blocked by overexpression of Bcl-2 or Akt. Therefore, combinatory treatment of sanguinarine and TRAIL may overcome the resistance of breast cancer cells due to overexpression of Akt or Bcl-2.”
“Objective:\n\nTo assess the cost effectiveness of varenicline compared with bupropion or unaided cessation for smoking cessation in Finnish adult smokers.\n\nResearch design and methods:\n\nThe BENESCO (BENEfits of Smoking Cessation on Outcomes) Markov model was used to follow a hypothetical cohort of smokers making a single quit attempt over a lifetime. Gender and age-specific data on the incidence and prevalence of five smoking-related diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], lung cancer, coronary heart disease [CHD], stroke and asthma exacerbations) were included in the model. Life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), total treatment costs and the lifetime cumulative incidence of these parameters were the primary outcomes evaluated, and Entinostat does they were compared for varenicline versus bupropion

and varenicline versus unaided cessation. The primary data were derived from Finnish publications and databases. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the base-case model.\n\nResults:\n\nThe treatment cohort comprised 229 301 smokers making a quit attempt. In the lifetime simulation, use of varenicline prevented 1965 and 5057 additional

cases of smoking-related disease, and 1184 and 3047 deaths attributable to smoking, when compared with bupropion and unaided cessation, respectively. Compared with bupropion and unaided cessation varenicline treatment yielded 4392 and 11 303 additional LYs (4851 and 12 485 QALYs), TPCA-1 concentration respectively. Varenicline resulted in cost savings of 15 million and 43 million euros ((sic)) compared with bupropion and unaided cessation, respectively. In the 20-year time horizon analysis, varenicline yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of E8791/QALY and (sic)7791/QALY gained in comparison to bupropion and unaided cessation, respectively. Sensitivity analyses supported the robustness of the base-case results for varenicline.\n\nConclusion:\n\nVarenicline dominated over its comparators, i.e. it was more effective and resulted in cost saving compared with bupropion and unaided cessation.”
“Scope Genetic or nutritional disturbances in folate metabolism lead to hyperhomocysteinemia and adverse reproductive outcomes. Folate-dependent homocysteine remethylation is required for methylation reactions and may influence choline/betaine metabolism.

The dimensions were then input into each equation

The dimensions were then input into each equation AZD6244 to obtain the volume estimates. The testicular volume by water displacement was 8.1 +/- 3.5 mL. Correlation coefficients (R(2)) of the 2 different methods (SO, US) to the gold standard were 0.70 and 0.85, respectively. The calculated testicular volumes were 9.2 +/- 3.9 mL (measured by SO, equation A), 11.9 +/- 5.2 mL (measured by SO, equation C), 7.3 +/- 4.2 mL (measured by US, equation A), 6.5 +/- 3.3 mL (measured by US, equation B) and 8.9 +/- 4.5 mL (measured by US, equation C). Only the mean size measured by US and volume calculated with the Hansen equation (equation A) and the

mean size measured by US and volume calculated with the Lambert

equation (equation C) showed no significant differences when compared with the volumes estimated by water displacement (mean difference 0.81 mL, P = .053, and selleck products 0.81 mL, P = .056, respectively). Based on our measurements, we categorized testicular volume by different cutoff values (7.0 mL, 7.5 mL, 8.0 mL, and 8.5 mL) to calculate a new constant for use in the Hansen equation. The new constant was 0.59. We then reexamined the equations using the new 0.59 constant, and found that the equation Volume (V) = L x W(2) x 0.59 was the best for describing testicular volume among our subjects (difference between the new equation and the gold standard of water displacement = 0.19 mL, P = .726). We also found that US was more precise in measuring testicular dimensions. We propose a new formula, V = L x W(2) x 0.59, to assess the volumes of smaller testes.”
“The efficiency of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) for limiter and divertor configurations in the EAST tokamak is investigated using hot electrical conductivity theory and experimental formulas. The results indicate that the efficiency of current drive in divertor geometry is slightly higher than that in limiter one. To interpret the experimental results, the GENRAY code is applied to calculate the propagation and absorption of the lower

hybrid wave (LHW) in different configurations. The numerical results show that the variation in the parallel refractive index (N-//) between the two configurations is quite large. Transformer Selleckchem Nutlin3a recharging experiments were also successfully conducted in EAST. By means of the Karney-Fisch method, the absorption index (alpha) and the upshift factor of refraction (beta) for the LHW are obtained. In addition, the maximum recharging efficiency in EAST is about 4% in the divertor configuration, with a line-averaged electron density of n(e_av) = 0.7 x 10(19) m(-3).”
“A novel class of NF-kappa B inhibitors were designed and synthesized based on KL-1156 (6-hydroxy-7-methoxychroman-2-carboxylic acid phenyl amide) which is unambiguously considered to be a promising inhibitor for the translocation step of NF-kappa B.

In meiosis I, anillin localizes to a cortical cap overlying metap

In meiosis I, anillin localizes to a cortical cap overlying metaphase I spindles, and a broad ring over anaphase spindles that are perpendicular to the cortex. Anillin is excluded from the cortex of the prospective first polar body, and highly enriched in the cytokinetic

ring that severs the polar body from the oocyte. In meiosis II, anillin is enriched in a cortical stripe precisely coincident AZD7762 price with and overlying the meiotic spindle midzone. These results suggest a model in which this cortical structure contributes to spindle re-alignment in meiosis II. Thus, localization of anillin as a conserved cytokinetic ring marker illustrates that the geometry of the cytokinetic ring is https://www.selleckchem.com/products/SB-203580.html distinct between the two oogenic meiotic cytokineses in mammals. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Since typical inflammatory responses may be diminished in children following bone marrow transplant (BMT), computed tomography (CT) imaging of the sinuses has been increasingly ordered to diagnose sinusitis in this group. The objective of this study was to determine the association between clinical sinusitis symptoms and sinus opacification

on CT scans in post BMT versus immunocompetent children. Our sample was comprised of 64 post BMT and 86 immunocompetent children with sinus CT scans. CT sinus opacification was scored using the modified Lund-Mackay staging system. The relationship between clinical sinusitis symptoms (rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, cough, headache, and facial pain) and opacification was compared for the two groups. The severity of sinus opacification in the BMT group was significantly higher compared to the immunocompetent group.

In combined patient groups the odds ratio (OR) for moderate/severe sinusitis was significantly elevated for rhinorrhea (OR=3.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-7.12), cough (OR=2.80; 95% CI, 1.22-6.42), and having either rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, or cough (OR=4.76; 95% CI, 1.71-13.24). While the immunocompetent group had a greater number of sinusitis symptoms compared to the post BMT group, both groups had a significant increase in the severity on CT with increasing number of symptoms. Conclusion: In post BMT patients, PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 Immunology & Inflammation inhibitor our data demonstrated higher odds of moderate/severe sinusitis on CT scans associated with rhinorrhea, cough or nasal congestion. These finding suggest that in post BMT children, detailed sinus history may still play a vital role in the diagnosis of sinusitis.”
“The objective of the present study was to investigate whether transpedicular bone grafting as a supplement to posterior pedicle screw fixation in thoracolumbar fractures results in a stable reconstruction of the anterior column, that allows healing of the fracture without loss of correction.\n\nPosterior instrumentation using an internal fixator is a standard procedure for stabilizing the injured thoracolumbar spine.

(c) 2009 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“The norepineph

(c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The norepinephrine nucleus, locus coeruleus (LC), has been implicated in cognitive

aspects of the stress response, in part through its regulation by the stress-related neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). LC neurons discharge in tonic and phasic modes that differentially modulate attention and behavior. Here, the effects of exposure to an ethologically relevant selleck stressor, predator odor, on spontaneous (tonic) and auditory-evoked (phasic) LC discharge were characterized in unanesthetized rats. Similar to the effects of CRF, stressor presentation increased tonic LC discharge and decreased phasic auditory-evoked discharge, thereby decreasing buy CA4P the

signal-to-noise ratio of the sensory response. This stress-induced shift in LC discharge toward a high tonic mode was prevented by a CRF antagonist. Moreover. CRF antagonism during stress unmasked a large decrease in tonic discharge rate that was opioid mediated because it was prevented by pretreatment with the opiate antagonist, naloxone. Elimination of both CRF and opioid influences with an antagonist combination rendered LC activity unaffected by the stressor. These results demonstrate that both CRF and opioid afferents are engaged during stress to fine-tune LC activity. The predominant CRF influence shifts the operational mode of LC activity toward a high tonic state that is thought to facilitate behavioral flexibility and may be adaptive in coping with the stressor. Simultaneously, stress engages an opposing opioid influence that restrains the CRF influence and may facilitate recovery toward pre-stress levels of activity. Changes in the balance of CRF:opioid

regulation of the LC could have consequences for stress vulnerability. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The number of unemployed patients presenting in general practice will increase over the next Selleck Kinase Inhibitor Library 12 months.\n\nUnemployed patients are likely to present with physical and psychological problems, including insomnia, depression, anxiety and a worsening of cardiovascular risk factors; family members are also likely to be affected.\n\nGPs have an important role in early detection and management of these health problems; effective approaches include cognitive behaviour techniques, goal-setting and motivational counselling.\n\nAppropriate provision of medical certificates, advocacy and social support help redress the loss of the personal and social “vitamins” of work.\n\nWhile access to psychological services has improved, patients may also need to be referred to social workers, and employment and welfare services.

Male rats received 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg BA (i p ) 30 min prior to

Male rats received 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg BA (i.p.) 30 min prior to daily exposure to repeated restraint stress (2 h/day) for 14 days. Activation of the HPA axis in response to repeated restraint stress was confirmed by measuring serum corticosterone levels and the expression of corticotrophin-releasing factor in the hypothalamus. Daily BA administration significantly

decreased the duration of immobility in the FST, Z-DEVD-FMK increased sucrose consumption, and restored the stress-related decreases in dopamine concentrations in the hippocampus to near normal levels. BA significantly inhibited the stress-induced decrease in neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the ventral tegmental area and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA in the hippocampus. Taken together, these findings indicate that administration of BA prior to the repeated restraint stress significantly improves helpless behaviors and depressive symptoms, possibly by preventing the decrease in dopamine and BDNF expression. Thus, BA may be a useful agent for the treatment or alleviation of the complex

symptoms associated with depression.”
“Epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA methylation, histone modifications and noncoding RNAs regulate and maintain gene-expression states. Similar to genetic mutations, alterations in epigenetic regulation can lead to uncontrolled cell division, tumor initiation and growth, invasiveness and metastasis. Research in brain cancer, particularly gliomas, has uncovered Smoothened Agonist in vivo global and gene-specific DNA hypomethylation, local DNA hypermethylation of gene promoters and the de-regulation of microRNA expression. Understanding epigenetic dysregulation in brain cancers has provided

new tools for prognostication, as well as suggesting new approaches to therapy. There is significant interest in new sequencing-based technologies that map genetic and epigenetic alterations comprehensively and at high resolution. These methods are being applied to brain tumors, and will better define the contribution of epigenetic defects to tumorigenesis.”
“Balneotherapy is appreciated as a traditional treatment modality in medicine. Hungary is rich in thermal mineral waters. Balneotherapy has been in extensive use for centuries and its effects have been studied in detail. Here, we present a systematic click here review and meta-analysis of clinical trials conducted with Hungarian thermal mineral waters, the findings of which have been published by Hungarian authors in English. The 122 studies identified in different databases include 18 clinical trials. Five of these evaluated the effect of hydro- and balneotherapy on chronic low back pain, four on osteoarthritis of the knee, and two on osteoarthritis of the hand. One of the remaining seven trials evaluated balneotherapy in chronic inflammatory pelvic diseases, while six studies explored its effect on various laboratory parameters. Out of the 18 studies, 9 met the predefined criteria for meta-analysis.

“The role of systemic autoimmunity in human traumatic brai

“The role of systemic autoimmunity in human traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other forms of brain injuries is recognized but not well understood. In this study, a systematic investigation was performed to identify serum autoantibody responses to brain-specific proteins after TBI in humans. TBI autoantibodies showed predominant immunoreactivity against a cluster of bands from 38-50 kDa on human brain immunoblots,

which were identified as GFAP and GFAP breakdown products. GFAP autoantibody PD98059 in vitro levels increased by 7 days after injury, and were of the IgG subtype predominantly. Results from in vitro tests and rat TBI experiments also indicated that calpain was responsible for removing the amino and carboxyl termini of GFAP to yield a 38 kDa fragment. Additionally, TBI autoantibody staining co-localized with GFAP in injured

rat brain and in primary rat astrocytes. These results suggest that GFAP breakdown products persist within degenerating astrocytes in the brain. Anti-GFAP autoantibody also can enter living astroglia cells in culture and its presence appears to compromise glial cell health. TBI patients showed an average 3.77 fold increase in anti-GFAP autoantibody levels from early (0-1 days) to late (7-10 days) times post injury. Changes in autoantibody levels were negatively correlated with outcome as measured by GOS-E score at 6 months, suggesting that TBI patients with greater anti-GFAP immune-responses had worse outcomes. Due to the long lasting nature of IgG, a test to detect anti-GFAP autoantibodies is likely to prolong the temporal BI 6727 concentration window for assessment of brain damage in human patients.”
“Objective: Evaluate the predictive value of Boston Acute Stroke Imaging Scale (BASIS) in acute ischemic stroke in Chinese population. Methods: This was a retrospective study. 566 patients of acute ischemic stroke were classified as having a major stroke or minor stroke

based on BASIS. We compared short-term outcome (death, occurrence of complications, admission to intensive care unit [ICU] or neurological intensive care unit [NICU]), long-term outcome (death, recurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, modified Rankin scale) and economic index including learn more in-hospital cost and length of hospitalization. Continuous variables were compared by using the Student t test or Kruskal-Wallis test. Categorical variables were tested with the Chisquare test. Cox regression analysis was applied to identify whether BASIS was the independent predictive variable of death. Results: During hospitalization, 9 patients (4.6%) died in major stroke group while no patients died in minor stroke group (p smaller than 0.001), 12 patients in the major stroke group and 5 patients in minor stroke group were admitted to ICU/NICU (p=0.001). There were more complications (cerebral hernia, pneumonia, urinary tract infection) in major stroke group than minor stroke group (p smaller than 0.05).

Ectatic lymph vessels, entrapment, and diffuse drainage of contra

Ectatic lymph vessels, entrapment, and diffuse drainage of contrast medium correlated with impaired lymphatic drainage. In conclusion, MRL at 3.0T provides very high spatial resolution and anatomical detail of normal and abnormal peripheral lymph vessels. MRL may thus become a valuable tool for microsurgical treatment planning and monitoring.”

the emergence of the Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) movement, the nature and role of evidence in medicine has been much debated. The formal classification of evidence that is unique to Evidence-Based Medicine, referred to as the Evidence hierarchy, has been fiercely criticized. Yet studies that examine how Evidence is classified in EBM practice are rare. This article presents an observational see more study of the nature of Evidence and Evidence-Based Medicine as understood and performed in practice. It does this by examining how MK-8776 an absence of Evidence is defined and managed in Evidence-Based Guideline development. The EBM label does not denote the quantity or quality of evidence found, but the specific management of the absence of evidence, requiring a transparently reported process of evidence searching, selection

and presentation. I propose the term Evidence Searched Guidelines’ to better capture this specific way of being’ EBM. Moreover, what counts as Evidence depends not just on the Evidence hierarchy, but requires agreement between the members of each guideline development group who mobilize a range of other’ knowledges, such as biological principles and knowledge of the clinic. In addition, I distinguish four non-Evidentiary justifications that are relied upon in the formulation of recommendations

(literature, qualified opinions, ethical principles, and practice standards). These are not always secondary to Evidence but may be positioned outside the hierarchy, allowing them to trump Evidence. The legitimacy of Evidence-Based Medicine relies neither on experts nor numbers, but on distinct procedures for handling (non-)Evidence, reflecting its regulatory objectivity’. Finally, the notion of transparency is central ALK inhibitor for understanding how Evidence-Based Medicine regulates, and is regulated within, contemporary biomedicine.”
“Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents, but at least 30% of cases occur in patients older than 60 years, and the absolute number of BL cases in adults exceeds those in childhood. BL is described as a monomorphic proliferation of medium-sized transformed B cells with round nuclei, clumped chromatin, basophilic cytoplasm, and squared-off cell borders, cytoplasmic vacuoles, medium-sized paracentral nucleoli, and a starry sky pattern. Translocation involving MYC is characteristic but not specific for BL. No single parameter is the gold standard for diagnosis; morphology, cytogenetics, immunophenotype, and gene expression profiles all may contribute to the diagnosis.

Recent findingsRecent literature on nasal functionality focuses o

Recent findingsRecent literature on nasal functionality focuses on the management of the internal and external nasal valve as well as the nasal septum during rhinoplasty.SummarySuccessful cosmetic rhinoplasty requires a thorough preoperative analysis of both aesthetic and functional characteristics of the nose. Close attention should be paid to the internal and external nasal valves and nasal septum before and during surgery S63845 order to preserve and improve nasal function following cosmetic rhinoplasty.”
“In this study, an environmental assessment on an electrokinetic (EK) system for the remediation of a multimetal-contaminated

real site was conducted using a green and sustainable remediation (GSR) tool. The entire EK process was classified into major four phases consisting of remedial investigations (RIs), remedial action construction (RAC), remedial Cyclopamine ic50 action operation (RAO), and long-term monitoring (LTM) for environmental assessment. The environmental footprints, including greenhouse

gas (GHG) emissions, total energy used, air emissions of criteria pollutants, such as NOx, SOx, and PM10, and water consumption, were calculated, and the relative contribution in each phase was analyzed in the environmental assessment. In the RAC phase, the relative contribution of the GHG emissions, total energy used, and PM10 emissions were 77.3, 67.6, and 70.4 %, respectively, which were higher https://www.selleckchem.com/products/citarinostat-acy-241.html than those of the other phases because the material consumption and equipment used for system construction were high. In the RAO phase, the relative contributions of water consumption and NOx and SOx emissions were 94.7, 85.2, and 91.0 %, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases, because the water and electricity consumption required for system operation was high. In the RIs and LTM phases,

the environmental footprints were negligible because the material and energy consumption was less. In conclusion, the consumable materials and electrical energy consumption might be very important for GSR in the EK remediation process, because the production of consumable materials and electrical energy consumption highly affects the GHG emissions, total energy used, and air emissions such as NOx and SOx.”
“Coral reefs are facing a biodiversity crisis due to increasing human impacts, consequently, one third of reef-building corals have an elevated risk of extinction. Logistic challenges prevent broad-scale species-level monitoring of hard corals; hence it has become critical that effective proxy indicators of species richness are established. This study tests how accurately three potential proxy indicators (generic richness on belt transects, generic richness on point-intercept transects and percent live hard coral cover on point-intercept transects) predict coral species richness at three different locations and two analytical scales.

Intriguingly, aromatic rings of the protein/RNA receptors seem to

Intriguingly, aromatic rings of the protein/RNA receptors seem to be key actors in this process. Indeed, close inspection of the structural information available reveals that they are frequently involved in CH/pi stacking interactions with sugar/aminocyclitol rings of the antibiotic. While the interaction between neutral carbohydrates and aromatic rings has been studied in detail during past decade, little is known about these contacts when they involve densely charged glycosides. Herein we report a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of the role played by CH/pi stacking

interactions in the molecular recognition of aminoglycosides. Our study aims to determine the influence BI 2536 cell line that the antibiotic polycationic character has on the stability, preferred geometry, and dynamics of these particular contacts. With this purpose, different aminoglycoside/aromatic complexes have been selected as model systems. They varied from simple bimolecular interactions PR-171 chemical structure to the more stable intramolecular CH/pi contacts present in designed derivatives. The obtained results highlight the key role played by electrostatic forces and the desolvation of charged groups in the molecular recognition of polycationic glycosides and have clear implications for the design

of improved antibiotics.”
“Socioeconomic problems limit the access of drug users to health-care services. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out by making use of the medical records of new case tuberculosis (TB) patients hospitalized at Masih Daneshvari Hospital, the national referral centre in Iran, from 2003 to 2006. Demographic and personal characteristics of the patients and type of disease were collected and categorized. Of the 944 patients with confirmed TB, 143 (15.1%)

were drug users, among whom 140 (97.9%) were men with buy YM155 just three women drug users. The mean age of the drug users group was 43.04 +/- 13.81 years. The type of drug used was opium in 100 cases (69.9%), heroin in 29 (20.3%), opium and heroin together in four (2.8%) and all three, opium, heroin and crack, in two (11.4%). For 238 high-risk patients, an HIV test was performed and HIV infection was confirmed in 33 cases. Patient delay was longer in drug users (P = 0.000) against other patients, whereas diagnosis delay was shorter (P = 0.007). Drug susceptibility tests were performed for 515 patients with positive cultures. One hundred and thirty-three (14.1%) were found to have ‘any resistance’ to anti-TB drugs, and 10 (1.1%) individuals had multidrug-resistant TB. Twenty-six (19.5%) of the individuals who showed resistance to first-line agents were drug users. There was no significant relation between drug resistance and drug use (P = 0.4).