Objective: To evaluate

Objective: To evaluate Selleckchem Torin 2 the antioxidant, analgesic, antidiarrheal, anthelmintic activities, and general toxicity of the ethanol extract of the roots. Materials and Methods: The extract was assessed for free-radical-scavenging activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin Ciocalteu reagent, antioxidant activity by the ferric reducing power assay, analgesic activity by the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate

tests, antidiarrheal activity by the castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice, anthelmintic activity on Paramphistomum cervi and Haemonchus contortus, and general toxicity by the brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: The extract showed free-radical-scavenging activity with an IC 50 value of 44.86 g/mL. TPC was 537.89 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g of dried plant material. It showed concentration-dependent reducing power, and displayed 42.11 and 69.32% writhing inhibition at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The extract also significantly raised the pain threshold at the above-mentioned

dose levels. In vivo antidiarrheal property was substantiated by AZD5153 research buy significant prolongation of latent period and decrease in total number of stools compared with the control. The LC 50 against brine shrimp nauplii was 36.21 g/mL. The extract exhibited dose-dependent decrease in paralysis and death time of the helminths. Conclusion: The above results demonstrated that the plant possesses notable bioactivities and somewhat supports its use in folk medicine.”
“Bone marrow-derived cells represent a heterogeneous cell population containing haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. These cells have been identified as potential candidates for use in cell therapy for the regeneration

of damaged tissues caused by trauma, degenerative diseases, ischaemia and inflammation or cancer treatment. GSK923295 cost In our study, we examined a model using whole-body irradiation and the transplantation of bone marrow (BM) or haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to study the repair of haematopoiesis, extramedullary haematopoiesis and the migration of green fluorescent protein (GFP(+)) transplanted cells into non-haematopoietic tissues. We investigated the repair of damage to the BM, peripheral blood, spleen and thymus and assessed the ability of this treatment to induce the entry of BM cells or GFP(+)lin(-)Sca-1(+) cells into non-haematopoietic tissues. The transplantation of BM cells or GFP(+)lin(-)Sca-1(+) cells from GFP transgenic mice successfully repopulated haematopoiesis and the haematopoietic niche in haematopoietic tissues, specifically the BM, spleen and thymus. The transplanted GFP(+) cells also entered the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) following whole-body irradiation.


“Emodin, the major active component of Rhubarb, has shown


“Emodin, the major active component of Rhubarb, has shown neuroprotective activity. This study is attempted to investigate whether emodin possesses beneficial effects on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced behavioral deficits (depression-like behaviors) and explore the possible mechanisms. ICR mice were subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress for 42 consecutive days. Then, emodin and fluoxetine (positive control drug) were administered for 21 consecutive days at the last three Bioactive Compound Library concentration weeks of CUMS procedure. The classical behavioral tests: open field

test (OFT), sucrose preference test (SPT), tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) were applied to evaluate the antidepressant effects of emodin. Then plasma corticosterone concentration, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were tested to probe the mechanisms. Our results indicated that 6 weeks of CUMS exposure induced significant depression-like behavior, with high, plasma corticosterone concentration and low hippocampal GR and BDNF expression levels. Whereas, chronic emodin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) treatments reversed the behavioral deficiency induced by CUMS exposure. Treatment with emodin normalized

the change of plasma corticosterone level, which demonstrated that emodin could partially restore CUMS-induced HPA axis GSK1120212 solubility dmso impairments. Besides, hippocampal GR (mRNA and protein) and BDNF (mRNA) expressions were also up-regulated after emodin treatments. In conclusion, PF-04929113 emodin remarkably improved depression-like behavior in CUMS mice and its antidepressant activity is mediated, at least in part, by the up-regulating GR and BDNF levels in hippocampus. (C)2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a facultative intracellular pathogen. Previous studies have indicated that the ability of Y. pestis to survive inside macrophages may be critical during

the early stages of plague pathogenesis. To gain insights into the biology of intracellular Y. pestis and its environment following phagocytosis, we determined the genome-wide transcriptional profile of Y. pestis KIM5 replicating inside J774.1 macrophage-like cells using DNA microarrays. At 1.5, 4, and 8 h postinfection, a total of 801, 464, and 416 Y. pestis genes were differentially regulated, respectively, compared to the level of gene expression of control bacteria grown in tissue culture medium. A number of stress-response genes, including those involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species, as well as several metabolic genes involved in macromolecule synthesis, were significantly induced in intracellular Y. pestis, consistent with the presence of oxidative stress and nutrient starvation inside Yersinia-containing vacuoles.

The amount of beta-carotene ranged between 0 and 2000 ppm The po

The amount of beta-carotene ranged between 0 and 2000 ppm. The polymer was characterised by different methods after processing then during and after storage at ambient temperature in light and dark. beta-Carotene hinders the oxidation

of polyethylene and does not increase the chain extension reactions during processing, though more vinyl groups and phosphonite molecules react. beta-Carotene colours polyethylene strongly already at low concentrations. The reactions of the polymer and beta-carotene are affected strongly by the storage conditions. The presence of beta-carotene does not influence E1 Activating inhibitor the stabilising efficiency of the primary and secondary antioxidants. In dark the molecular structure of the polymer does not change appreciably, while the reactions of beta-carotene lead to an increase in the yellowness index. In light the molecular characteristics of polyethylene undergo significant changes indicating long

chain branching. The polymer fades rapidly after an induction period. The length of the induction period is not influenced by light. The rate of the degradation reactions of beta-carotene GSK1210151A inhibitor during storage is controlled by its concentration and film thickness. Visible autoaccelerated decomposition in light renders -carotene candidate as an indicator in active packaging materials. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Multiplex genome engineering is a standalone recombineering https://www.selleckchem.com/products/azd8186.html tool for large-scale programming and accelerated evolution of cells. However, this advanced genome engineering technique has been limited to use in selected bacterial strains. We developed a simple and effective strain-independent method for effective genome engineering in Escherichia

coli. The method involves introducing a suicide plasmid carrying the l Red recombination system into the mutS gene. The suicide plasmid can be excised from the chromosome via selection in the absence of antibiotics, thus allowing transient inactivation of the mismatch repair system during genome engineering. In addition, we developed another suicide plasmid that enables integration of large DNA fragments into the lacZ genomic locus. These features enable this system to be applied in the exploitation of the benefits of genome engineering in synthetic biology, as well as the metabolic engineering of different strains of E. coli.”
“OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of gestational weight gain adequacy according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations and examine demographic, behavioral, psychosocial, and medical characteristics associated with inadequate and excessive gain stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category. METHODS: We used cross-sectional, population-based data on women delivering full-term (37 weeks of gestation or greater), singleton neonates in 28 states who participated in the 2010 or 2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

Both direct and indirect biomarkers implicated in the heart failu

Both direct and indirect biomarkers implicated in the heart failure cascade have potential prognostic value in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).

This review will focus on the role of biomarkers in AF, history of SCD, and CRT with an emphasis to improve clinical risk assessment for arrhythmias and patient selection for device therapy. Notably, information obtained from biomarkers may supplement traditional diagnostic and imaging techniques, thus providing an additional benefit in the management of patients.”
“BACKGROUND: Decision-making is an essential skill for surgeons, but systematic objective feedback is lacking. Cognitive feedback provides information about how risk factors relate to outcomes, and Crenigacestat inhibitor how individual surgeons mentally synthesize these relationships.\n\nMETHODS: Pre-feedback, we assessed accuracy and reliability of 105 trainee surgeons’/medical students’ estimates of operative BMS-777607 clinical trial mortality for major Surgery for 28 patient vignettes with varying risk factors, using a published risk model as a gold standard. Post-feedback, participants were retested on C a second case set.\n\nRESULTS: Post-feedback,

both groups’ estimates became more reliable. Pre-feedback, medical students were less accurate than trainee surgeons; post-feedback, their accuracy improved to match that of trainee surgeons, who did not improve further.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Cognitive feedback improved risk estimate reliability in both groups and accuracy in the medical students group. Lack of improvement Apoptosis inhibitor in the surgical group implies a ceiling effect. These findings have implications for training and assessment of surgical decision-making. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“The specific binding of the fluorescent dye calcofluor to cereal beta-glucan results in increased fluorescence intensity of the formed complex and is in use for the quantification of beta-glucan above a critical molecular weight (MW) by flow injection analysis. In this study, this method was applied in a fast and easy

batch mode. In order to emphasize the spectral information of the emission spectra of the calcofluor/beta-glucan complexes, derivative signals were calculated. A linear relationship was found between the amplitude of the second derivative signals and the beta-glucan concentration between 0.1 and 0.4 mu g/mL. The low detection limit of this new method (0.045 mu g/mL) enabled its use to study the transport of cereal beta-glucans over differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers. Additionally, the method was applied to quantify beta-glucan in arabinoxylan samples, which correlated well with data by an enzyme based method. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Teleost fishes are the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates. The diversity of teleosts has been attributed to a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event in the ray-finned fish lineage.

Although a 16-week copper treatment alone in mice showed no signi

Although a 16-week copper treatment alone in mice showed no significant change in learning and memory performances, cholesterol treatment significantly induced learning and memory impairments, which could be exacerbated by the co-treatment with copper. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that trace amounts of copper further stimulated the amyloid precursor protein (APP) upregulation and contributed to amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) deposition in the brain of cholesterol-fed mice. Western blot analysis showed that

copper also increased the protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) eFT-508 order and the degradation Of I kappa B proteins in the brain of cholesterol-fed mice. Furthermore, increased production of high inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expressions were detected in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of copper and cholesterol co-treated mice by immunohistochemical analysis. These findings suggest that trace amounts of copper could induce APP upregulation, activate inflammatory pathway and exacerbate neurotoxicity in cholesterol-fed mice. Crown Copyright (C) 2008 Published

by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved”
“In populations of East Asian descent, we performed a replication study of loci previously identified in populations of European descent as being associated selleck screening library with obesity measures such as BMI and type 2 diabetes.\n\nWe genotyped 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 13 candidate loci that had Duvelisib concentration previously been identified by genome-wide association meta-analyses for obesity measures in Europeans. Genotyping was done in 18,264 participants from two general Japanese populations. For SNPs showing an obesity association in Japanese individuals,

we further examined diabetes associations in up to 6,781 cases and 7,307 controls from a subset of the original, as well as from additional populations.\n\nSignificant obesity associations (p < 0.1 two-tailed, concordant direction with previous reports) were replicated for 11 SNPs from the following ten loci in Japanese participants: SEC16B, TMEM18, GNPDA2, BDNF, MTCH2, BCDIN3D-FAIM2, SH2B1-ATP2A1, FTO, MC4R and KCTD15. The strongest effect was observed at TMEM18 rs4854344 (p = 7.1 x 10(-7) for BMI). Among the 11 SNPs showing significant obesity association, six were also associated with diabetes (OR 1.05-1.17; p = 0.04-2.4 x 10(-7)) after adjustment for BMI in the Japanese. When meta-analysed with data from the previous reports, the BMI-adjusted diabetes association was found to be highly significant for the FTO locus in East Asians (OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.09-1.18; p = 7.8 x 10(-10)) with substantial inter-ethnic heterogeneity (p = 0.003).\n\nWe confirmed that ten candidate loci are associated with obesity measures in the general Japanese populations. Six (of ten) loci exert diabetogenic effects in the Japanese, although relatively modest in size, and independently of increased adiposity.

This behavior is analogous to histones and supports the previousl

This behavior is analogous to histones and supports the previously reported idea that tau could play a protective role in stress situations. Taken together, these results show a similar behavior of tau and histone concerning DNA binding, suggesting that post-translational modifications on tau might impair the role that, by modulating the DNA function, might be attributable to the DNA-tau interaction.”
“Island evolution may be expected to involve fast initial morphological divergence followed Acalabrutinib concentration by stasis. We tested this model using the dental phenotype of modern and ancient common voles (Microtus arvalis),

introduced onto the Orkney archipelago (Scotland) from continental Europe some 5000 years ago. First, we investigated phenotypic divergence of Orkney and continental European populations and assessed climatic influences. Second, phenotypic differentiation among Orkney populations was tested against geography, time, and neutral genetic patterns. Finally, we examined evolutionary change along a time series for the Orkney Mainland. Molar gigantism and anterior-lobe hypertrophy evolved rapidly in Orkney voles following introduction, without any transitional forms detected.

Founder events and adaptation appear to explain this initial rapid evolution. Idiosyncrasy in dental features among different island populations of Orkney www.selleckchem.com/products/Ispinesib-mesilate(SB-715992).html voles is also likely the result of local founder events following Neolithic translocation around Etomoxir in vitro the archipelago. However, against our initial expectations, a second marked phenotypic shift occurred between the 4th and 12th centuries AD, associated with increased

pastoral farming and introduction of competitors (mice and rats) and terrestrial predators (foxes and cats). These results indicate that human agency can generate a more complex pattern of morphological evolution than might be expected in island rodents.”
“Females with the classic form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are said to perform better than unaffected female controls on tests of mental rotation or other visuospatial abilities, but findings are conflicting. We studied 31 adolescents and young adults with CAH and 19 unaffected sibling controls, who were given standardized spatial tests and tests of other sexually differentiated cognitive functions (verbal fluency, perceptual speed). The possible role of CAH subtype (salt-wasting or simple-virilizing) was evaluated. Only females with the more severe, salt-wasting form of CAH, but not females with the simple-virilizing form, performed significantly better than sex-matched sibling controls on measures of mental rotation. Subtype differences were not significant for verbal fluency or perceptual speed. Severity of prenatal genital virilization, but not postnatal age when medication was started, predicted accuracy on the Mental Rotations Test.

Within iGluRs, NMDA receptors have been the most actively investi

Within iGluRs, NMDA receptors have been the most actively investigated for their role in neurological diseases, especially neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. It has been demonstrated that excessive activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) plays a key role in mediating some aspects CCI-779 datasheet of synaptic dysfunction in several CNS disorders, so extensive research

has been directed on the discovery of compounds that are able to reduce NMDARs activity. This review discusses the role of NMDARs on neurological pathologies and the possible therapeutic use of agents that target this receptor. Additionally, we delve into the role of NMDARs in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases and the receptor antagonists that have been tested on in SN-38 solubility dmso vivo models of these pathologies. Finally, we put into consideration the importance of antioxidants to counteract oxidative capacity of the signaling cascade in which NMDARs are involved.”
“BACKGROUND: The concept of surgery and public health has been introduced in recent years, highlighting the impact of surgeons on improving public health outcomes, a relationship that has traditionally been ascribed to general practitioners. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of surgeon

availability on deaths from motor vehicle crashes (MVC).\n\nSTUDY DESIGN: Retrospective MK-0518 mouse analysis of the

Area Resource File from 2006 was performed. The primary outcome variable was the three-year (2001-2003) average in MVC deaths per 1 million population for each county. The primary independent variable was the density of surgeons per 1 million population in year 2003. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, adjusting for density of general practitioners, urbanicity of the county, and socioeconomic status of the county.\n\nRESULTS: A total of 3,225 counties were analyzed. The median number of MVC deaths per million population was 226 (IQR 158-320). The median number of surgeon per million population was 55 (IQR 0-105), while the median number of general practitioners per million population was 424 (IQR 274-620). On unadjusted analysis, each increase of one surgeon per million population was associated with 0.38 fewer MVC deaths per million population (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, each increase of one surgeon per million population was significantly associated with 0.16 fewer MVC deaths per million population (p < 0.001). Rural location, persistent poverty, and low educational level were all associated with significant increases in MVC deaths.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Higher density of surgeons is associated with significant reduction in deaths from MVCs.

Here we recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from 36 sub

Here we recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from 36 subthalamic regions in 18 patients undergoing functional

neurosurgery for the treatment of PD. We recorded directly from the contacts learn more of the deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes as they were introduced in successive 2 mm steps, and assessed phase coherence as a measure of spatially extended, rather than local, oscillatory synchronization. We found that phase coherence in the beta frequency band correlated with the severity of Parkinsonian bradykinesia and rigidity, both in the limbs and axial body. Such correlations were frequency and site specific in so far as they were reduced when the lowermost contact of the DBS electrode was above MK-8776 clinical trial the dorsal STN. Correlations with limb tremor occurred at sub-beta band frequencies and were more lateralized than those between beta activity and limb bradykinesia

and rigidity. Phase coherence could account for up to similar to 25% of the variance in motor scores between sides and patients. These new data suggest that the strength of spatially extended oscillatory synchronization, as well as the strength of local synchronization, may be worthwhile incorporating into modelling studies designed to inform surgical targeting, post-operative stimulation parameter selection and closed-loop stimulation regimes in PD. In addition, they strengthen the link between pathological synchronization Selleckchem AS1842856 and the different motor features of Parkinsonism. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) spreads primarily by cell-to-cell transmission. Therefore, HTLV-1 promotes the proliferation of infected cells to facilitate transmission. In HTLV1 infected individuals, the provirus is present mainly in effector/ memory T cells and Foxp3+ T cells. Recent study suggests that this immunophenotype is acquired by infected cells through the function of HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ). Tax, which is encoded by the plus

strand, is crucial for viral replication and de novo infection, while HBZ, encoded by the minus strand, is important for proliferation of infected cells. Importantly, HBZ and Tax have opposing functions in most transcription pathways. HBZ and Tax cooperate in elaborate ways to permit viral replication, proliferation of infected cells and propagation of the virus.”
“Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. Although many gap filling methodologies have been employed, there is no standardized procedure for producing defensible estimates of annual Rsoil.

Search terms included voriconazole, blastomyces, blastomycosis, C

Search terms included voriconazole, blastomyces, blastomycosis, CNS, cerebral, and central nervous system.\n\nSTUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English-language clinical trials, case reports, treatment guidelines, and background material were searched for voriconazole safety and efficacy data. References of reviewed articles were examined and used to identify additional sources.\n\nDATA SYNTHESIS: A search of the literature yielded 2 published case reports and 2 case series documenting a total of 7 cases of CNS blastomycosis. In all cases, CNS blastomycosis was successfully treated

sequentially with amphotericin B followed by voriconazole. To date, no clinical trials have evaluated the use of voriconazole in treating CNS blastomycosis. Ages of the click here patients with documented cases of CNS blastomycosis ranged from 14 months

to 63 years. In at least 5 cases, CNS blastomycosis presented as lesions in the brain detected by magnetic resonance imaging. One case presented as focal splenic lesions. The. remaining 2 were diagnosed based on neuroimaging studies or positive spinal fluid serology. Prior to receiving voriconazole, patients were treated with an amphotericin B formulation combined in some situations with either fluconazole or itraconazole. Subjects underwent treatment with voriconazole for an average of 11 months, with disease remission or stabilization detected in MK5108 supplier all cases.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Further studies https://www.selleckchem.com/products/azd-1208.html are needed to fully elucidate the role of voriconazole in the treatment of CNS blastomycosis. It nonetheless may be considered as an azole option for either follow-up therapy after liposomal amphotericin B therapy or as salvage therapy in patients intolerant of amphotericin B or other azoles.”
“The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of betaine against oxidative stress and pathological changes mediated by cadmium in the testes of rats. The adult male Wistar rats were

allocated into three experimental groups as follows: the cadmium group received cadmium chloride at the dosage of 2 mg/kg intraperitoneally thereafter, the rats treated by physiological saline for 10 consecutive days. The betaine plus cadmium group received betaine at the dosage of 1.5 % w/w of the total diet orally for 10 consecutive days and cadmium chloride injected at the 2nd day of the betaine treatment. The control rats were injected physiological saline. Both testes of rats were removed for antioxidant assay and pathological changes evaluation on days 5 and 10 after cadmium toxicity. TBARS concentration (as a lipid peroxidation marker) was significantly higher in the cadmium group by day 10 compared to control and betaine plus cadmium groups, and it was significantly higher in cadmium group by day 5 in comparison with the controls. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase activities decreased significantly by day 10 in cadmium group when compared to the controls.

The presence of integron and other resistance determinants was in

The presence of integron and other resistance determinants was investigated in 90 Aeromonas isolates derived from nine freshwater trout farms in Victoria (Australia).

Polymerase chain reaction was carried out for the detection of integrase genes Int1, Int2 and Int3, gene cassette array, integron-associated GS-7977 aadA, sul1 and qac1 genes, streptomycin resistance genes strA-strB, beta-lactamase resistance genes (bla)TEM and (bla)SHV, and tetracycline resistance genes tetA-E and tetM. Clonal analysis was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Class 1 integrons were detected in 28/90 (31%) and class 2 and class 3 in none of the strains, aadA gene in 19/27 (70%) streptomycin-resistant strains, sul1 in 13/15 (86.7%) sulphonamide-resistant strains and qac1 gene in 8/28 (28.6%) integron-bearing strains. Five strains from two different farms carried gene cassettes of 1000 bp each containing the aadA2 gene and PFGE analysis revealed genetic relatedness. tetC was detected in all and tetA in

9/18 (50%) tetra-cycline-resistant strains. The strA-strB, blaTEM or blaSHV genes were not detected in any of the strains. Aeromonas spp. carrying integrons and other resistance genes are present in farm-raised fish and sediments even though no antibiotics were licensed for use in Australian aquaculture at the time of the study.”
“Automated systems for monitoring behaviour of cows within dairy production are increasing and developments in technology provide new opportunities JNK-IN-8 in this area. This study aimed to validate the use of a 3D activity logger (HOBO (R) Pendant G Data Logger), that registers the cow’s head positions during grazing, to distinguish grazing behaviour from non-grazing behaviour.\n\n20 lactating dairy cows of the breed Swedish Red were included in the trial. All cows were observed for 30 min each day either in the morning or afternoon. The behavioural observations were conducted by two trained observers during 5 h a day for

ten days, 2.5 h in the morning (9:30-12:00 am) and 2.5 h in the evening (06:00-08:30 pm). Each cow had a logger attached to the right bottom side of the halter and the logging interval was set to 5s, which means that the head inclination was measured every fifth second. DZNeP research buy Furthermore an IceTag3D (TM) logger was attached to the right hind leg of each cow in order to evaluate if this information together with the information from the 3D activity sensor could increase the precision of the prediction. The DISCRIM procedure in SAS 9.12 was used to find the optimal value of a linear discrimination between grazing and non-grazing registrations and the 3D activity sensor was validated with 5 s, 5 min and 10 min logging intervals between observations points against the visual observation of grazing behaviour. The 5 and 10 min logging point was taken from the 5s logging point occurring with 5 and 10 min interval.