As the worldwide prevalence of diabetes continues to increase, th

As the worldwide prevalence of diabetes continues to increase, the number of patients with CKD will also increase. Therefore, it is essential that physicians know how to safely and effectively manage diabetes in the setting of CKD. Adequate glycaemic control in patients with diabetes is important to prevent ESRD and other complications and to decrease mortality.

However, many glucose-lowering agents need to be dose-adjusted or should not be used in the setting of stage 3 CKD or higher (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), particularly in patients with stage 5 CKD (eGFR <15 ml/min/1.73 m2) and in those receiving dialysis. Insulin therapy is appropriate for patients undergoing dialysis; however, several orally administered glucose-lowering agents can also be used safely in these patients. In this Review, we provide an overview of TPX-0005 concentration the use of noninsulin glucose-lowering agents in the dialysis population.”
“Complete revascularization is considered superior to incomplete revascularization

(IR), with better long-term survival and a lower rate of reintervention. However, it has yet to be established whether this difference is due directly to IR as a surgical strategy or whether this approach is merely a marker of more severe coronary disease and more rapid progression. We believe that IR is a prognostic marker for a more complex coronary pathology, and adverse effects are probably due to the preoperative condition of the patient. In fact, although IR may negatively affect long-term outcomes, it may be, when wisely chosen, the ideal treatment strategy in selected high-risk patients. IR HSP activation can derive from a surgical strategy of target vessel

revascularization, where the impact of surgery is minimized to reduce perioperative mortality and morbidity, aiming to achieve the best feasible safe revascularization.”
“The condensation of C(3)-C(7) alkyl- and cycloalkylcyclopentanones and cyclohexanones with 1,2-ethane-, 1,2-propane-, Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor and 1,3-butanediols in the presence of heterogenic acid catalysts provided new representatives of spiroacetals. The highest yields of reaction products were obtained in the presence of phosphomolybdic heteropolyacid additionally modified with cobalt and bromine, and also in the presence of the chlorinated cationite KU-23 at 110-130A degrees C. The synthesized spiroacetals possess the jasmine and menthol-wooden fragrance of various tinges.”
“Rituximab offers an alternative to current immunosuppressive therapies for difficult-to-treat nephrotic syndrome. The best outcomes are seen in patients with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome who have failed to respond to multiple therapies. By contrast, the benefits of rituximab therapy are limited in patients with steroid-resistant nephrotid syndrome, particularly those with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Therapy with plasma exchange and one or two doses of rituximab has shown success in patients with recurrent FSGS.

Deposition through masks causes shadowing effects at the edges th

Deposition through masks causes shadowing effects at the edges that also distort the loops. Cutting with a diamond scribe appears to give the best outcome. Implications for devices based on nanoelements

GSK3235025 are discussed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3565399]“
“Background: The suggestion that body mass index (BMI) cutoffs to define obesity should differ in persons of Polynesian descent compared with Europeans is based principally on the observation that persons of Polynesian descent have a relatively higher proportion of lean body mass for a given BMI.

Objectives: The objectives were to determine whether the relation between BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic comorbidity differs in the 2 major ethnic groups in New Zealand and to ascertain whether ethnicity-specific BMI and waist circumference cutoffs for obesity are justified for Maori (indigenous New Zealanders).

Design: Subjects included a convenience sample of 1539 men and women aged 17 82 y (47% Maori, 53% white) with measures of BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting insulin, glucose, and lipids. The sensitivity and specificity of BMI (in kg/m(2); 30 and 32), waist circumference (80 and 88 Androgen Receptor Antagonist in vivo cm in women, 94 and 102 cm in men), and

waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; >= 0.6) in relation to insulin sensitivity, insulin resistance, and Ferroptosis mutation the metabolic syndrome were determined. Receiver operating characteristic curves and areas under the curve (AUCs) were also calculated.

Results: No ethnic or sex differences between AUCs were observed for BMI, waist circumference, or WHtR, which showed that these anthropometric measures perform similarly in Maori and European men and women and correctly discriminate between those with and without insulin

resistance or the metabolic syndrome 79-87% of the time. Any increase in specificity from a higher BMI cutoff of 32 in Maori was offset by appreciable reductions in sensitivity.

Conclusion: These findings argue against having different BMI or waist circumference cutoffs for people of Polynesian descent. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 390-7.”
“Nylon 6/carboxylic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiO2-COOH) nanocomposites were prepared by in situ polymerization of caprolactam in the presence of SiO2-COOH. The aim of this work was to study the effect of carboxylic silica on the properties of the nylon 6 through the interfacial interactions between the SiO2-COOH nanoparticles and the nylon 6 matrix. For comparison, pure nylon 6, nylon 6/SiO2 (unmodified) and nylon 6/amino-functionalized SiO2 (SiO2-NH2) were also prepared via the same method. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to evaluate the structure of SiO2-COOH and nylon 6/SiO2-COOH.

Each composite was subjected to

biodegradation tests in a

Each composite was subjected to

biodegradation tests in a Rhizopus oryzae compost. Morphological observations indicated severe disruption of film structure Lazertinib after 60 days of incubation, and both the PBSA and the PBSA-g-MA/SCB composite films were eventually completely degraded. The PBSA-g-MA/SCB films were more biodegradable than those made of PBSA and exhibited a higher intrinsic viscosity, implying a strong connection between these characteristics and biodegradability. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 427-435, 2011″
“We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with a history of increased sleep need and difficulty waking up; the diagnosis of idiopathic hypersomnia was hypothesized. During ambulatory polysomnography (PSG), the patient presented an episode characterized by loss of consciousness and jerking of the four limbs. A video-PSG monitoring was performed and the patient showed unresponsiveness

and drowsiness selleck compound at 7 a.m. During the episode, EEG showed theta-delta diffuse activity, and blood glucose level was 32 mg dl(-1). The diagnosis of insulinoma was then assumed; CT scan showed a hypodense mass into the pancreatic tail, and a partial pancreasectomy was performed. The described symptoms disappeared, and 5 years later the findings of a complete clinical and neurophysiological examination were negative. The clinical picture of insulinoma presenting with paroxysmal disorders has been previously described; however, whereas hypersomnia is uncommon, in the current case it represents the main symptom. Clinicians should keep in mind that neuroglycopenia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with hypersomnia, particularly if the clinical scenario does not conform to standard criteria.”
“Background: buy OSI-744 Short stature is a common reason for referral to the pediatric endocrine clinic. In 2003, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of growth

hormone (GH) for the treatment of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS).

Objective: To explore if this indication changed referrals for short stature (SS).

Design/Methods : A retrospective chart review of children seen for SS in the pediatric endocrine clinic between July 1998 and June 1999 (interval one, n = 138) and July 2005-June 2006 (interval two, n = 268) was performed. Variables collected included age, gender, height (h), and parental heights.

Results: Average height standard deviation score (HT-SDS) was -2.11 +/- 0.9 in interval one and -2.14 +/- 0.83 in interval two (p = ns). No differences in age, gender distribution, relationship between child and parental heights, the proportion of subjects started on GH for ISS or in the HT-SDS of those treated between the two intervals were identified.

colocasiae Dendrograms based on two molecular data using the unw

colocasiae. Dendrograms based on two molecular data using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) was incongruent and classified the P. colocasiae isolates into one and two major clusters. Cophenetic correlation coefficient between dendrogram and Emricasan in vitro original similarity matrix were significant for RAPD (r = 0.904) and AFLP (r = 0.825). The results of this study displayed a high level of genetic variation among the isolates irrespective of the geographical origin. The possible mechanisms and implications of this

genetic variation are discussed.”
“Contents Eosinophilic cells accumulate in the capillaries of the bovine Graafian follicle shortly before ovulation and in the early developing corpus luteum (CL). Suppressing the migration of these eosinophilic cells by dexamethasone allowed us to evaluate their possible function in the CL development. Brown Swiss cows (n = 10) were randomly subdivided into two groups (n = 5). Every group was used once as control group and once as experimental group with two oestrous cycles between each treatment. Eighteen hours (h) after oestrus synchronization, selleck compound dexamethasone or saline was given. Ovulation was induced 24

h later with gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Another injection of dexamethasone or saline was given 12 h later. Eosinophilic cells in the blood were counted daily until day 7 after the first dexamethasone injection. The collection of ovaries took place at days 1, 2 and 5. Gene expression, protein concentration and location of angiogenic factors, chemokines, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and eosinophilic cells were studied. No eosinophilic AMN-107 in vivo cells were found in the CL of the treatment group. Blood progesterone

decreased significantly in the dexamethasone group from day 8 to 17. The protein concentration of FGF2 increased significantly in CL tissue at day 2 and VEGFA decreased. Local IGF1 gene expression in the CL was not regulated. We assume from our data that the migration of eosinophilic cells into the early CL is not an essential, but an important stimulus for angiogenesis during early CL development in cattle.”
“Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by severe elevations in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and poses considerable treatment challenges. Substantive LDL-C reductions are difficult to achieve with standard therapies, and many patients with FH do not tolerate currently available lipid-lowering medications. Mipomersen is an antisense oligonucleotide injectable drug that was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of homozygous FH. It is complementary in sequence to a segment of the human apolipoprotein (Apo) B-100 messenger RNA and specifically binds to it, blocking translation of the gene product.

SO, MO, and SOP presented altered cardio-respiratory coupling dur

SO, MO, and SOP presented altered cardio-respiratory coupling during sleep, and these alterations are related with severity of obesity

and OSA parameters.”
“Objective: This article is reporting a method for establishment primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the spiral modiolar artery (SMA).

Methods: VSMCs were isolated from guinea pig SMAs. Arterial tissues were cut and enzymatically digested at 37 degrees C for 20 min using a 0.1% trypsin solution. After digestion, tissue fragments were explanted in a 35-mm culture dish. Contaminated fibroblasts were separated from VSMCs because of their different adhesion abilities. The cells migrated from the explants within 7-10 days and grew to confluence in approximately 4 weeks.

Results: We obtained pure and viable VSMCs from the confluent third passage. The morphological HDAC inhibitor and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated a “”hill-and-valley”" growth pattern that is characteristics of VSMCs, and the expression of cell type-specific markers (alpha-smooth muscle actin and myosin), respectively. The change of intracellular calcium concentration

induced by angiotensin II and CaCl2 showed that the VSMCs had good cell viability.

Conclusion: We obtained purified VSMCs using this method. All cell cultures expressed P005091 cost smooth muscle markers (alpha-SM actin, and myosin) and were negative for vWF. This article provides a simple method to obtain VSMCs for in vitro studies of physiology and pathophysiology in the circulation disturbances of the inner ear. In addition, VSMCs are regarded to be an excellent model to evaluate drugs in vitro. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“As laparoscopic techniques and instrumentation advance, bariatric surgery selleck compound has begun to

be performed through smaller incisions and fewer ports. Since the visualization of the dorso-lateral portion of the left liver lobe is critical for most bariatric procedures, surgeons have developed various techniques for providing adequate liver retraction without compromising patient safety. Herein, we present our experience with a port-free internal liver retractor used for bariatric cases.

Endolift (TM) does not require an additional port or anchoring to an external device. After insertion through an existing 5-mm port by means of the applier, one of the two attached clips (one on either end) was anchored to the left crus of the diaphragm while the other was fixed to the peritoneum above the right liver lobe through or beneath the falciform ligament. At the end of the surgery, the device was easily removed by using the applier.

We used this technique for 31 Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses and 2 single-incision sleeve gastrectomies. There were 24 females and 9 males with a mean age of 46 and mean body mass index 45.0 kg/m(2). The mean operative time was 136.5 min. The time required for the placement of the device was 1-3 min.

Salivary flow rate negatively correlated with the number Candida

Salivary flow rate negatively correlated with the number Candida. SYN-117 Among patients with oral candidiasis, Candida albicanswas isolated from the tongue mucosa and Candida glabratawas isolated from the angle of the mouth. Conclusion: These results suggest that particular Candida species are involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia.”
“1,2-Epoxyoctafluorobutane reacted with urea in DMSO and aqueous DMSO, dioxane, and acetonitrile to give 40-42% of 5-hydroxy-5-pentafluoroethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione. 5-Hydroxy-5-tridecafluorohexylimidazolidine-2,4-dione was formed in 54% yield in analogous reaction

of 1,2-epoxytridecafluorooctane with urea in aqueous DMSO. The reactions of 1,2-epoxyoctafluorobutane and 1,2-epoxytridecafluorooctane

with urea in anhydrous dioxane and acetonitrile unexpectedly afforded heterocyclization products, 2-amino-5-fluoro-5-perfluoroalkyloxazol-4(5H)-ones (yield 11-82%). Fluorine-containing allantoin, 5-tridecafluorohexyl-5-ureidoimidazolidine-2,4-dione (yield 19%), and N-(1-hydroxy-2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tridecafluoroheptyl)-urea (yield 46%) were synthesized BYL719 for the first time by reaction of 1,2-epoxytridecafluoroctane with urea in DMSO and aqueous DMSO.”
“Background: Acute stroke size is one of the factors impacting functional outcome. To further validate the simplified modified Rankin Scale questionnaire (smRSq), we tested its correlation with stroke size. Methods: We screened 60 ischemic stroke patients with acute brain images available for Crenolanib ic50 stroke volume measurement who were enrolled in 2 smRSq reliability studies. Inclusion criteria were acute ischemic stroke visible on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the smRSq scored at least 3 months after stroke. We excluded patients with disabilities from a previous stroke. One investigator who was blinded to the functional outcomes measured stroke volumes with a specialized computer program (Analyze). We

used MRI when both MRI and CT were available. We classified strokes into 2 size categories: lacunar type measuring <= 6.28 cm(3), which corresponds to a cylinder with a maximum diameter and height of 2.00 cm, or strokes >6.28 cm(3). The Spearman correlation analysis compared the smRSq between the lacunar type and the larger strokes. Results: Thirty-two patients qualified for this analysis with a mean age of 59 +/- 15 years, and 17 (53%) were men. Lacunar stroke volumes (n = 17) ranged from 0.03 to 4.58 cm(3), and the larger stroke volumes (n = 15) ranged from 11.52 to 250.02 cm(3). Lacunar strokes were associated with lower smRSq scores (median 1) than the larger strokes (median 4; r = 0.68; R-2 = 0.46; P <.001).

On average, annual costs (year 2006 values) for disability were s

On average, annual costs (year 2006 values) for disability were significantly higher for employees with MS ($US3868) than employee controls ($US414; p<0.0001). Annual medically related absenteeism costs were also higher for employees with MS than for controls ($US1901 vs $US1003, respectively; p<0.0001). On average, total annual indirect costs for employees PP2 order with MS were $US5769 compared with $US1417 for controls (p<0.0001).

Conclusions: MS is a chronic and debilitating disease

that poses a substantial employer burden in terms of medically related absenteeism and disability costs. Indirect costs of employees with MS were >4 times those of employee controls.”

Propofol is a versatile anesthetic agent used in pediatric practice to facilitate investigational and interventional procedures. GSK3326595 mw Propofol can cause significant respiratory depression, the management of which may require advanced airway management skills. This investigation aimed to increase the safety of propofol

administration by developing a dosing schedule that would preserve spontaneous respiration in at least 95% of subjects.


With Research Ethics Board approval and informed consent, American Society of Anesthesiologists’ Status I and II children aged 6-15 years presenting for upper or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled. An intravenous loading dose of propofol (4 mg center dot kg-1) was administered at a rate determined by a randomization schedule in a two-phased study. Following the loading dose, additional propofol was infused at 200 mcg center dot kg-1 center dot min-1 selleck products for 5 min or until respiratory insufficiency was observed. In Phase I, the infusion rate was modified by 100 mcg center dot kg-1 center dot min-1 increments

depending upon the respiratory response of the previous subject. In Phase II, the duration of infusion was randomized according to a Biased Coin Design principle to determine the 95% threshold for respiratory insufficiency.


Fifty subjects were included in the analysis. Infusion rates ranged from 1000 to 2300 mcg center dot kg-1 center dot min-1. Seven subjects experienced respiratory insufficiency. The mean (sd) time to respiratory insufficiency was 104 (36) s and duration was 93 (51) s. A propofol loading dose administered over 3.0 min (CI = 1.9-3.4 min) maintained spontaneous respiration in 95% of subjects.


The respiratory response to propofol is highly variable in children. Slower infusion of propofol will result in a lower risk of respiratory depression.

Fusion times and fusion accuracy, defined as the largest deviatio

Fusion times and fusion accuracy, defined as the largest deviation between MR and CT in the median sagittal plane on the ventral tip of the cranial end plate of the most cranial vertebra visible on the CT, were measured in both sessions. Correct or incorrect NSC23766 cell line implant position was evaluated upon the fused images for all patients by an experienced senior staff musculoskeletal radiologist. Mean fusion

time (session 1/session 2; in seconds) was 100.4/95 (R1) and 104.2/119.8 (R2). Mean fusion deviation (session 1/session 2; in mm) was 1.24/2.20 (R1) and 0.79/1.62 (R2). The correct/incorrect implant position was identified correctly in all cases. In conclusion, MR/CT image fusion of the spine with metallic implants is feasible, fast, accurate and easy to implement in daily routine work.”
“Recently novel treatment modalities has focused on targeted therapies. Tyrosine kinases

represent a good target for cancer treatment since they are involved in transferring phosphate groups from ATP to tyrosine residues in specific selleck inhibitor substrate proteins transducing intracellular signals engaged in the many mechanisms, playing an important role in the modulation of growth factors signaling that are strongly related to carcinogenesis. Deregulation of tyrosine kinases activity was also found in hematological malignancies, particularly overexpression of tyrosine kinases was observed in chronic myeloid leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Herein we show that tyrosine kinase inhibitors have revolutionized hematology malignancies therapy in a very short period of time and they still remain one of the most interesting anticancer compounds that could give a hope for cure and not only long-lasting complete remission. This manuscript summarizes current view on the first generation tyrosine kinase inhibititor – imatinib, second generation – dasatinib, nilotinib and bosutnib as well as new generation tyrosine kinase inhibititors – ponatinib and danusertib in hematooncology.”
“Chronic stress is known to enhance the susceptibility for addiction disorders including

alcoholism. While these findings have been recapitulated in animal models, the majority of these studies have utilized non-social rather than social stress paradigms; the latter of which are believed to be more relevant to the LY411575 human situation. Therefore, the major aim of this study was to investigate, if 14 days of chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC), a pre-clinically validated psychosocial stress paradigm relevant for human psychiatric and somatic disorders, enhances ethanol (EtOH) consumption in male mice. To assess this, we employed the well-established two-bottle free-choice paradigm where mice were given access to water and 2, 4, 6 and 8% EtOH solutions (with the concentrations increasing each fourth day) following termination of the stress procedure.

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics [doi: 10 1063/1 3552981]“

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3552981]“
“Background: The poor cardiovascular survival of patients with renal insufficiency is improved by transplantation. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) is able to predict independently

overall and cardiovascular mortality. PWV is elevated in renal insufficiency. Consequently, PWV may change according to the improvement in renal function after kidney transplantation.

Methods: In a cross-sectional setting, PWV was determined in 40 renal transplant recipients (RTx) and compared to the PWV of 40 age- and gender-matched patients with comparable renal insufficiency (CKD) and 40 age-and gender-matched hemodialysis patients (HD).

Results: RTx and CKD patients had comparable eGFR (RTx: 42.9 +/- 18.4, CKD: 48.3 +/- 29.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and protein/creatinine ratio (RTx: median Vactosertib 172.5, 25th percentile 97.75, 75th percentile 344.5, CKD: median 183.272, 25th percentile 100.00, 75th percentile 470.00 mg/g creatinine). There was no significant difference in PWV between RTx 3-12 months post-transplant and CKD or HD patients (RTx: 9.65 +/- 1.57, CKD: 9.98 +/- 3.91, HD: 10.27 +/- 2.89 m/s; n = 20 pairs). Similarly, PWV in transplant patients

> 12-month post-transplant was similar to that of CKD and HD patients (RTx: 9.71 +/- 2.23, CKD: 9.36 +/- 2.74, HD: 9.84 +/- 3.41 m/s; n = 20 pairs).

Discussion: We could not detect significant differences in PWV comparing RTx with age-and gender-matched CKD patients.”
“Natronomonas Selleck BEZ235 pharaonis is an archaeon adapted to two extreme conditions: high salt concentration and alkaline pH. It has become one of the model organisms for the study of extremophilic life. Here, we present a genome-scale, manually curated metabolic reconstruction for the microorganism. The reconstruction itself check details represents a knowledge base of the haloalkaliphile’s

metabolism and, as such, would greatly assist further investigations on archaeal pathways. In addition, we experimentally determined several parameters relevant to growth, including a characterization of the biomass composition and a quantification of carbon and oxygen consumption. Using the metabolic reconstruction and the experimental data, we formulated a constraints-based model which we used to analyze the behavior of the archaeon when grown on a single carbon source. Results of the analysis include the finding that Natronomonas pharaonis, when grown aerobically on acetate, uses a carbon to oxygen consumption ratio that is theoretically near-optimal with respect to growth and energy production. This supports the hypothesis that, under simple conditions, the microorganism optimizes its metabolism with respect to the two objectives. We also found that the archaeon has a very low carbon efficiency of only about 35%. This inefficiency is probably due to a very low P/O ratio as well as to the other difficulties posed by its extreme environment.

Due to the Luttinger liquid properties the temperature dependence

Due to the Luttinger liquid properties the temperature dependence of the transport correlation

functions follows power laws of T with nonuniversal exponents. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3540286]“
“The cDNAs encoding ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) transcription factor. OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 of Oncidium GDC-0973 concentration were cloned, sequenced and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequences of OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 of identified cDNA clones contain all structural features found in the Arabidopsis EIN3, such as an amino terminal acidic domain, a proline-rich region, and five basic conserved domains. Complementation test for OgEIL1 in Arabidopsis ein3 mutant indicate that function of OgEIL1 is the same as Arabidopsis EIN3. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 expressed differentially in the roots, stem, leaves and flower buds of Oncidium. OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 mRNA levels in fully opened flowers increased as time progressed after cutting and reached a maximum in the fifth day and decreased on seventh day, which is consistent with the hypothesis that flowers initiated to wilt when ethylene raised abruptly. In de-capped flowers. OgEIL2 mRNA showed a decrease, while OgEIL1

mRNA exhibited an increase. Exogenous application of ethylene increased the mRNA levels of OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 in flower buds and flowers after cutting compared prior to ethylene treatment, however, in pollinia de-capped flowers, both OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 mRNA levels responded to a decline to exogenous ethylene immediately after Ion Channel Ligand Library research buy treatment. Collectively, it is suggested that the main functions of OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 are to modulate the senescence of Oncidium flowers. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“We report results of thermoelectric power measurements (S(T)) in ferrimagnetic Gd-4(Co1-xCux)(3) compounds with x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3, in the temperature range 8-300 K. Whereas

in Gd4Co3, S(T) is always negative, for x > 0 the substitution of Co for Cu gives rise to the appearance of a low temperature positive maximum in S(T) at around 30 K. Based on our previous study of these compounds, we argue that this maximum in S(T) originates from electron-magnon scattering and this website is sensitive to electron band structure changes resulting from the substitution of Co for Cu and the accompanying reduction in the ratio between the electron-magnon and the electron-phonon scattering strengths. The decreasing role of Co 3d electrons with the progressive substitution of Co for Cu, evidenced by a strong reduction in the spin disorder resistivity and the Co magnetic moment, is seen to be crucial for the existence of such a low temperature maximum in S(T) for x > 0. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.