Neutral red uptake data are presented as A540

values (mea

Neutral red uptake data are presented as A540

values (mean ± S.D.). Background levels of neutral red uptake by cells treated with culture supernatant from a vacA null learn more mutant were subtracted to yield net neutral red uptake values. Results Expression and secretion of mutant VacA proteins by H. pylori The structure of the VacA p55 domain is dominated by β-helical coils [3]. In previous studies, it has been difficult to identify specific amino acids within the p55 domain that are important for toxin activity [26]. To determine whether specific β-helical elements within the VacA p55 domain are required for VacA activity, we introduced an ordered series of eight deletion mutations, each 20 to 28 amino acids in length, into a portion of the vacA gene that encodes the p55 domain. These deletion mutations were designed so that AZD6244 nmr each would result in the deletion of a single coil of the β-helix (Fig. 1A; representative single coils are highlighted in Fig. 1B). By designing the deletion mutations in this manner, it was predicted that the mutant proteins would exhibit reductions in the length of the β-helical region but would exhibit minimal changes in protein folding in comparison to the

wild-type VacA protein. All of the deletion mutations analyzed in this study are located outside of the VacA region (amino acids 1-422) previously found to A769662 be required for cell vacuolation when VacA is expressed in transiently transfected cells [24]. Each of the mutations was introduced into the H. pylori chromosomal vacA gene by natural transformation and allelic exchange as described in Methods. Each mutant H. pylori strain was tested by immunoblot

analysis for the capacity to express VacA. We first analyzed expression of the mutant strains grown on blood Liothyronine Sodium agar plates. Each mutant strain expressed a VacA protein with a mass of ~85 kDa (corresponding to the VacA passenger domain), which indicated that in each case, the ~140 kDa VacA protoxin underwent proteolytic processing similar to wild-type VacA (data not shown). We next analyzed expression and secretion of VacA when the bacteria were grown in broth culture. Wild-type H. pylori and each of the mutant strains exhibited similar patterns of growth. Immunoblot analysis of the bacterial cell pellets indicated that, as expected, each of the mutant strains expressed an ~85 kDa VacA protein (Fig. 2A). In comparison to wild-type VacA, several of the mutant VacA proteins were present in reduced amounts in the bacterial cell pellets (Fig. 2A and 2B). Immunoblot analysis of the broth culture supernatants indicated that each of the mutant strains secreted or released an ~85 kDa VacA protein.

[29] Nevertheless, comparison of the

[29]. Nevertheless, comparison of the results of body mass obtained during the measurement 2, in 6 of 7 competitors suggested the necessity of reduction of BM2 from 1 to 6.6 kg (from 1.0% to 9.9%, the mean 4.7±3.0%) in order to meet the requirements of weight category limits. Reducing weight of some judokas during

training period was part of a training procedure, however, not all of the contestants, who participated in the study, was qualified for competition. The judoists, whose weight was above weight category limits, click here had still 5 days before the beginning of the contest, which is typical time for rapid weight loss of weight-cyclers [30]. Since the fights are carried out within weight categories, body mass control is incorporated in judoists’ training regimes selleck products [31], but it does not necessarily have an impact on the reduction in motor abilities because the reduction in BM does not exceed 5% [32]. Kubo et al. [24] suggested that because of the division into the weight categories, the contestants with lower PF should reach higher sport skill level. However, no unequivocal results from studies in this field have been presented so far in the available literature [28]. From the Doramapimod physiological point of view, anaerobic power

and capacity, strength, and aerobic power have been considered the main characteristics to be developed by judo players [24, 28]. Anaerobic capacity is critical to the effectiveness of techniques used in attack and defense. According to Franchini et al. [33] the anaerobic system provides the short, quick, all-out bursts of maximal power during the match, while the aerobic system contributes to the athlete’s ability to sustain effort for the duration of the combat and to recover during the brief periods of rest or reduced effort. Therefore, Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease we observed the post-training changes in the indices, with the most particular development being the time to obtaining peak power (toPP). Contrary to the

placebo group, judo contestants who were supplemented with creatine malate for 6 weeks had significantly higher values of the fatigue index (FI). These results were a natural consequence of faster depletion of muscle phosphagen stores (ATP and CP), mainly in skeletal muscles of type II, caused by generating higher peak power. However, the supplementation with creatine compounds showed no effect on aerobic capacity (VO2max), which was consistent with the observations by [4, 34]. In the study carried out among track and field athletes, mainly sprinters and long distance runners, these authors did not find significant changes in aerobic capacity after the supplementation with creatine malate.A significant increase, however, was found only in sprinters in peak power (PP and RPP) and total work (TW and RTW).

High-dose radiotherapy for oral cancer induces mandibular osteora

High-dose radiotherapy for oral cancer induces mandibular osteoradionecrosis with an incidence of approximately 5% to 20% [15, 16]. The SBI-0206965 manufacturer management of osteoradionecrosis is difficult and not always successful. Therefore, if the antitumor effect could be increased by combining chemotherapy with lower doses of radiotherapy, it might reduce radiation-related adverse events without sacrificing efficacy. The combined method studied here has the potential to increase the antitumor effect while minimizing surgery. Therefore,

a phase II study is warranted. On the other hand, the clinical response rate for neck nodal disease was 42.9%. This result was poor compared with the clinical response rate of the primary tumor. A late phase II clinical study of S-1 alone found a clinical response rate was 21.7% for cervical lymph node metastasis [13]. These results have suggested that neck dissection is warranted for metastatic lymph nodes in patients with oral carcinoma. In conclusion, the concurrent administration of S-1 and radiotherapy was well tolerated and yielded sufficiently positive results. The RD of S-1 with concurrent radiotherapy for this protocol is BSA <1.25 m2, 50 mg/day; BSA 1.25-1.5 m2, 80 mg/day; BSA ≥ 1.5 m2, 100 mg/day for 5 days per week for 4 weeks. We have already started a phase II study Selleckchem LY411575 in multiple institutes. Conflict of interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgements We thank Professor J. Patrick Barron of the International Medical Communications Center of Tokyo Medical University for his review of an earlier version of this manuscript. Electronic supplementary material Additional file Sitaxentan 1: Prevalence of adverse events (DOCX 123 KB) selleck compound References 1. Klug C, Berzaczy D, Voracek M, Millesi W: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy in the management of oral cancer: A review. J Cranio-Maxillofac Surg 2008, 36:75–88.CrossRef 2. Kirita T, Ohgi K, Shimooka H, Yamanaka Y, Tatebayashi S, Yamamoto K, et al.: Preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus radical surgery for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: an analysis of long-term results. Oral Oncol 1999, 35:597–606.PubMedCrossRef

3. Iguchi H, Kusuki M, Nakamura A, Nishiura H, Kanazawa A, Takayama M, et al.: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with pirarubicin and 5-fluorouracil for respectable oral and maxillary carcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 2004, 554:55–61.PubMed 4. Shirasaka T, Shimamoto Y, Ohshimo H, Yamaguchi M, Kato T, Yonekura K, Fukushima M: Development of a novel form of an oral 5-fluorouracil derivative (S-1) directed to the potentiation of the tumor selective cytotoxicity of 5- fluorouracil by two biochemical modulators. Anticancer Drugs 1996, 7:548–557.PubMedCrossRef 5. Fukushima M: Combines therapy with radiation and S-1, an oral new 5-FU prodrug, is markedly effective against nonsmall cell lung cancer xenografts in mice [Abstract].

Science 2000, 299: 1753–1755 CrossRef 21 Hassan

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2001, 60: 268–273.CrossRefPubMed 26. Nakano S, KU-60019 Murakami K, Meguro M, Soejima H, Higashimoto K, Urano T, Kugoh H, Mukai T, Ikeguchi M, Oshimura M: Expression profile of LIT1/KCNQ1OT1 and epigenetic status at the KvDMR1 in colorectal cancers. Cancer Sci 2006, 97: 1147–1154.CrossRefPubMed 27. Soejima H, Nakagawachi T, Zhao W, Higashimoto K, Urano T, Matsukura S, H 89 price Kitajima Y, Takeuchi M, Nakayama M, Oshimura M, Miyazaki K, Joh K, Mukai T: Silencing of imprinted CDKN1C gene expression is associated with loss of CpG and histone H3 lysine 9 methylation at DMR-LIT1 in esophageal cancer. Oncogene 2004, 23: 4380–4388.CrossRefPubMed 28. Wu MS, Wang HP, Lin CC, Sheu JC, Shun CT, Lee WJ, Lin JT: Loss of imprinting and overexpression

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Nature 2009, 462:192–195

Nature 2009, 462:192–195.CrossRef 6. Bolotin KI, Ghahari F, Shulman MD, Stormer HL, Kim P: Observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene. Nature 2009, 462:196.CrossRef 7. Bolotin KI, Sikes KJ, Hone

J, Stormer HL, Kim P: Temperature-dependent transport in suspended graphene. Phys Rev Lett 2008, 101:096802.CrossRef 8. Chen SY, Ho PH, Shiue RJ, Chen CW, Wang WH: Transport/magnetotransport TSA HDAC cost of high-performance graphene transistors on organic molecule-functionalized substrates. Nano Lett 2012, 12:964–969.CrossRef 9. Rouhi N, Wang YY, Burke PJ: Ultrahigh conductivity of large area suspended few layer graphene films. Appl Phys Lett 2012, 101:263101.CrossRef 10. Compagnini G, Forte G, Giannazzo F, Raineri V, La Magna A, Deretzis I: Ion beam induced defects in graphene: Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations. J Mol Struct 2011, 993:506–509.CrossRef 11. Sahoo S, Palai R, Katiyar RS: Polarized Raman scattering in monolayer, bilayer, and suspended bilayer graphene. J Appl Phys 2011, 110:044320.CrossRef 12. Cancado LG, Jorio A, Ferreira EHM, Stavale F, Achete CA, Capaz

RB, Moutinho MVO, Lombardo A, Kulmala TS, Ferrari AC: Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies. Nano Lett 2011, 11:3190–3196.CrossRef 13. Suëtaka W: Surface Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: Methods and Applications. New York: GS-4997 concentration Plenum; 1995.CrossRef 14. Wang JK, Tsai CS, Lin CE, Lin JC: Vibrational dephasing dynamics at hydrogenated and deuterated semiconductor surfaces:

symmetry analysis. J Chem Bcl-2 inhibitor Physics 2000, 113:5041–5052.CrossRef 15. Kneipp K, Moskovits M, Kneipp H: Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: Physics and Applications. Berlin and Heidelberg: next Springer; 2006.CrossRef 16. Wang HH, Liu CY, Wu SB, Liu NW, Peng CY, Chan TH, Hsu C-F, Wang J-K, Wang Y-L: Highly Raman-enhancing substrates based on silver nanoparticle arrays with tunable sub-10 nm gaps. Adv Mater 2006, 18:491–495.CrossRef 17. Liu CY, Dvoynenko MM, Lai MY, Chan TH, Lee YR, Wang JK, Wang YL: Anomalously enhanced Raman scattering from longitudinal optical phonons on Ag-nanoparticle-covered GaN and ZnO. Appl Phys Lett 2010, 96:033109.CrossRef 18. Huang CH, Lin HY, Chen ST, Liu CY, Chui HC, Tzeng YH: Electrochemically fabricated self-aligned 2-D silver/alumina arrays as reliable SERS sensors. Opt Express 2011, 19:11441–11450.CrossRef 19. Ferrari AC, Meyer JC, Scardaci V, Casiraghi C, Lazzeri M, Mauri F, Piscanec S, Jiang D, Novoselov KS, Roth S, Geim AK: Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers. Phys Rev Lett 2006, 97:187401.CrossRef 20. Malard LM, Pimenta MA, Dresselhaus G, Dresselhaus MS: Raman spectroscopy in graphene. Physics-Rep Rev Sec Physics Lett 2009, 473:51–87. 21. Gao LB, Ren WC, Liu BL, Saito R, Wu ZS, Li SS, Jiang C, Li F, Cheng H-M: Surface and interference coenhanced Raman scattering of graphene. ACS Nano 2009, 3:933–939.CrossRef 22.

A partial scapulectomy (Type IIA) was performed in all patients a

A partial scapulectomy (Type IIA) was performed in all patients as previously described [14]. The resection of all involved soft tissues was extralesional, with a 2 to 5 cm margin. Thus, according to the extent of the lesion in these patients, little of the deltoid, latissimus dorsi, or biceps brachii were resected due to partial tumor invasion. The Blasticidin S ic50 rotator cuff, particularly the supraspinatus, infraspinatus,

and subscapularis, were excised, similar to the external rotator muscles. Most of the affected muscles surrounding the thoracoscapula required en bloc excision with the tumor. Combretastatin A4 ic50 The suprascapular nerve and blood vessel bundle required removal in only one patient (#1). The affected muscles were commonly this website characterized intraoperatively as swollen, necrotic, and deficient in elasticity/contractibility. Following excision of affected soft tissues, resection of the acromion base and coracoid process (with preservation of the tips) was performed in all patients. Subsequently, the distal end of the clavicle was resected in patient #2 and the normal glenoid (in patients #2, 3, 6, and 7) was osteomized longitudinally at least 1 cm medial to the glenoid edge in sequence while preserving the glenoid articular capsule and surface (in the glenoid-saved group). Alternatively, for the patients with an involved glenoid (#1, 4, and 5), the

glenoid was resected together with the articular surface through an additional incision of the capsule (i.e., the glenoid-resected group). Finally, the affected scapula bodies

were resected (in patients #1, 2, 3, 5, and 6) based on analysis of the intraoperative frozen sections that were taken to determine the surgical margins. A wide resection and safe surgical margin was selected for all patients. Bone and soft tissue management The articular capsule and muscles, particularly the abductors, were reconstructed in sequence following bony reconstruction. The fresh-frozen (-80°C) scapular allografts were provided by the bone bank at the authors’ medical institution. Size-matched scapula allografts were placed to fit the bone defect, with a posterior glenoid tilt angle of 8° to 12° and a downward slope angle of 4° of the glenoid fossa. Fixtures used Immune system for the glenoid-saved allografts depended on the thickness of the remaining glenoid. When the glenoid thickness exceeded 1 cm, the allograft was fixed proximal to the lateral border of the scapula. For patients with a glenoid thickness of less than 1 cm, the articular capsule was instead sutured through holes created at the glenoid edge. The residual scapula were fixed to the glenoid-resected allografts with plates and screws and the articular capsule was sutured circumferentially via holes created in the allograft’s glenoid edge.

CrossRef 28 Hsieh HJ, Liu PC, Liao WJ: Immobilization of inverta

CrossRef 28. Hsieh HJ, Liu PC, Liao WJ: Immobilization of invertase via carbohydrate moiety on chitosan to enhance its thermal stability. Biotechnol

Lett 2000, 22:1459–1464.CrossRef 29. Lin VS-Y, Motesharei K, Dancil K-PS, Sailor MJ, Ghadiri MR: A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor. Science 1997,278(5339):840.CrossRef 30. Pacholski C, Sartor M, Sailor MJ, Cunin F, Miskelly GM: Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy. J Am Chem Soc 2005,127(33):11636.CrossRef 31. Schwartz MP, Derfus AM, Alvarez SD, Bhatia SN, Sailor MJ: The smart Petri dish: a nanostructured photonic crystal for real-time monitoring of living cells. Langmuir 2006, 22:7084.CrossRef 32. Naveas N, Hernandez-Montelongo J, Pulido R, Torres-Costa V, Villanueva-Guerrero R, Ruiz ISRIB JPG, Manso-Silván M: Fabrication and characterization of a chemically oxidized-nanostructured porous silicon based Oligomycin A price biosensor implementing orienting Selleck ABT 263 protein A. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 2014, 115:310–316.CrossRef 33. Bragaru M, Simion M, Miu M, Ignat T, Kleps I, Schiopu V, Avram A,

Craciunoiu V: Study of the nanostructurated silicon chemical functionalization. Roman J Inform Sci Technol 2008, 11:397–407. 34. Vandenberg ET, Bertilsson L, Leidberg BO, Uvdal K, Erlandsson R, Elwing H, Lundstrom I: Stucture of 3 Amino propyl tri ethoxy silane on silicon oxide. J Colloid Interface Sci 1991,147(1):103–118.CrossRef 35. Kim J: Formation, Structure, and Reactivity of Amino-Terminated Organic Films on Silicon Substrates. In Chapter 6: Interfaces and Interphases in analytical Chemistry.

Volume 1062 Edited by: Helburn R, Vitha MF. 2011, 141–165. http://​pubs.​acs.​org/​doi/​abs/​10.​1021/​bk-2011-1062.​ch006 find more 36. Adochitei A, Drochioiu G: Rapid characterization of peptide secondary structure by FT-IR spectroscopy. Rev Roum Chim 2011,56(8):783–791. 37. Gloger M, Tischer W: Methods of enzymatic analysis. In vol 1. 3rd edn. Edited by: Bergmeyer HU, Bergmeyer J, Grassl M. VCH, Weinheim; 1983:142–163. 38. Masudaa Y, Kugimiyaa S, KatoI K: Improvement of thermal-stability of enzyme immobilized onto mesoporous zirconia. J Asian Ceramic Soc 2014, 2:11–19.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions P.S. carried out all the experimental work. M.A. helped in the biological part of the experiments. P.S. and V.A. jointly discussed and wrote the manuscript. V.A. and R.V.D. conceived the experiments. All the authors analyzed and discussed the results. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Porous materials with their substantial surface areas are versatile structures with specific properties of value for diverse fields such as photonics, catalysis, and therapeutics [1].

As a result, there is increasing interest for sports nutrition pr

As a result, there is increasing interest for sports nutrition product manufacturers

to undertake specific research to validate or support marketing claims. selleck products VIPER®ACTIVE is a specific sports drink produced by Maxinutrition Ltd. The product is a carbohydrate-protein-electrolyte (CPE) formula designed to support exercise performance, energy production, stamina and short term recovery from intense training. The manufacturer guidelines indicate a dosage of 40 g of the product (mixed with 500 ml of water) for use during exercise bouts, equating to an 8.0% concentration (or 7.1% for total carbohydrate). It is widely established that the ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) during exercise can improve time GANT61 molecular weight to exhaustion [1], through maintenance of plasma glucose concentrations, and increasing total carbohydrate oxidation (CHOTOT) rates [2]. Additional evidence exists that by increasing exogenous carbohydrate oxidation (CHOEXO) rates [3], beverages containing multiple CHO combinations may have further ergogenic potential [4]. The inclusion of essential electrolytes, namely sodium, into such beverages has also been shown to enhance or support higher hydration levels, or ingestion rates, during and post exercise [5–7]. There has been recent interest in the use of carbohydrate-protein (CP) combinations as a means to not only enhance time to exhaustion compared to a CHO beverage [8],

but also to improve post exercise recovery rates. It has been demonstrated [9] that the ingestion of a carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate beverage significantly enhanced late stage cycling time trial performance in comparison to CHO only; and attenuated post exercise creatine kinase concentrations along with subjective muscle soreness. The ergogenic potential of CP beverages firstly appears to be explained by the high CHO ingestion rates of ~60, along with an independent caloric advantage though the co-ingestion of ~20 of protein. The innovation of nutrient timing has also implied the need for early carbohydrate Diflunisal [10] and/or protein ingestion post exercise [11], particularly when repeated short term training

bouts are undertaken. Practical methods to support initial training bouts, as well as short term recovery are therefore warranted, including the assessment of specific formulas which utilise a complete array of essential nutrients, namely combined carbohydrates, essential amino acids and key electrolytes, that may enhance acute and repeated bouts of exercise. The aim of this study was therefore to undertake an independent assessment of the potential influence of a commercially available CPE beverage (VIPER®ACTIVE) on repeated submaximal physiological and work output parameters in comparison to a matched placebo (PL). A further aim was to assess the influence of both beverages on subsequent time trial performance following short term recovery.

In this study, we use a national

In this study, we use a national representative sample in order to gain more insight in the prevalence of fatigue in different subgroups distinguished by age, gender, and education level, as well as insight in explanations for high levels of fatigue. This leads us to the following research questions: 1. Which subgroup,

distinguished by gender, age, and education level reports high work-related fatigue? How about the prevalence in highly educated women?   2. Which factors explain work-related fatigue in the subgroup with the highest prevalence compared with other subgroups? Which factors #Erastin randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# account for the prevalence in (older) highly educated women?   Methods Sample and procedure The Netherlands Working Conditions Survey (NWCS) is a combined postal/web survey which constitutes a representative sample of the MLN0128 Dutch workforce aged 15–64 years but excludes self-employed individuals (Van den Bossche et al. 2006, 2007). In 2005 and 2006, 80,000 individuals were randomly sampled from the Dutch working population database of Statistics Netherlands.

Employees aged younger than 23 years and employees with a non-Western background were 50% over sampled, because the response rate in these two groups is known to be low. As the most recent database available for sampling was 2 years out of date, 10% of the individuals sampled did no longer meet the inclusion criteria of being an employee. Taking these 10% into account, the NWCS response rate was 33.0% (N = 47,263). The individuals in the sample received a written questionnaire by mail at their home address in the first week of November. The questionnaires were accompanied by an answering envelope and an information leaflet in which the purpose of the study was explained, and participation was asked. After 2–3 weeks, a written reminder was sent to the majority of those who had not yet responded. The questionnaire could be filled out with a pencil, or via internet using a personal code that was printed

on the questionnaire. The individuals in the sample were given 7 weeks to fill out and return the questionnaire. Measures Biographical data Biographical characteristics of the respondents are gender, four age categories (15–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–64) and three categories for education level (low, intermediate level, and high). Situational factors Household composition is distinguished in five groups: Progesterone married or co-habiting either with or without children, single parent household, single, or other. Nine professional groups were formed in accordance with the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). Working conditions and health In addition, information on working conditions was gathered. With regard to working time, the respondents were asked to report the number of hours they work according to their contract. Working overtime was asked in three categories (never, incidentally, on a structural basis). Terms of employment were grouped to either fixed term or permanent.

As the US Surgeon General C Everett Koop has said,

As the US Surgeon General C. Everett Koop has said, Emricasan “Drugs don’t work in patients who don’t take them….” There has been much concern about the negative consequences of poor compliance and persistence with oral eFT508 osteoporosis medications. This article will briefly review these issues and, more specifically, will address possible reasons why patients may not take their oral osteoporosis therapies as directed, and suggest some potential solutions and future research. We will focus on oral bisphosphonates since the majority of the prescriptions for a medication for fracture prevention are for

an oral bisphosphonate. Compliance and persistence with therapy What has become apparent in research done during the last few years is that many patients discontinue oral medications for osteoporosis soon after treatment initiation, with a rapid drop in persistence in the first 3 months, followed by a slower decline over ensuing months. For example, persistence on daily bisphosphonate therapy has varied between 25% and 35% persistence at 1 year [1]. Persistence with weekly bisphosphonate therapy at 1 year is between 35% and 45%, a rate not SC79 mouse substantially better [1]. Some improvement in persistence was seen in one study with monthly bisphosphonate therapy using administrative

claims data, but this improvement has not been confirmed in other studies [2–4]. Adherence to estrogen agonists/antagonists such as raloxifene may be somewhat higher [5], as well as anabolic agents such as teriparitide which require daily subcutaneous injections [6]. The adherence reported to bisphosphonate medications depends on the methodology used, whether medication

possession this website ratio or persistence over a specific time period is used as well as the definition of the refill gap. This poor persistence seen with oral bisphosphonates does not differ substantially from the persistence to oral medications prescribed for other largely asymptomatic chronic conditions such as hypertension [7] and hypercholesterolemia [8]. Osteoporosis itself is asymptomatic until a fracture occurs, and some patients can have multiple vertebral fractures before symptoms appear. Evidence suggests across multiple therapeutic areas that many patients take drugs incorrectly, infrequently, or not at all. A 2002 Harris Interactive Study [9] showed that approximately 18% of patients taking medications for one or more chronic illnesses had not filled their prescriptions at all, 26% had delayed filling their prescriptions, 14% took a prescription medication in a smaller dose than prescribed, approximately 30% had taken a prescription medication less often than prescribed, and approximately 21% had stopped taking medication sooner than prescribed.