So, the more the target is underrepresented in the original sampl

So, the more the target is underrepresented in the original sample, the more the chance to find right answer decreases. Greater emphasis should be probably given, when planning a clinical trial and when interpreting its results, to the great impact that the molecular heterogeneity of tumors, affecting sensitivity to the experimental treatment, may have on the results of a clinical trial [28]. This concept has been never taken into account in the planning and

the analysis of clinical trials with cytotoxic agents, but it should be necessarily considered Selumetinib purchase in clinical trials with molecularly targeted agents. In a simplified situation, in which the whole population of patients is divided in two distinct genotypes (A and B) – where genotype A is characterized by sensitivity to the experimental treatment producing in this group an outcome better than in the control group, and the genotype B is characterized by absence of difference in efficacy between experimental and standard treatment – the higher the proportion of patients

with genotype B in the study sample, the lower the power of the clinical GDC-0449 chemical structure trial to show a positive result. The statistical power of the study is even lower if we postulate that the genotype B determines a detrimental effect of experimental treatment compared to control. Also in the case that the targeted population is well represented, and the trial gives positive results in favor of the new drug, this means that this effect is driven by that subset of patients, anyway administering the treatment to many patients who do not really benefit. Moreover, Rebamipide the subgroup analysis process itself is biased by many risks of data distortion. According to the brilliant paper

published by Lagakos et al, if you test 10 subgroups, your chance to occur into more than 3, more than 2, and more than 1 false positive results is around 2%, 9% and 40% [29]. Any ‘Post hoc’ exploratory subgroup analyses (i.e. the comparison of experimental and standard treatment separately in subgroups of patients identified by the biomarkers status, without a priori planned hypotheses) is a dangerous procedure, because of the high risk of both false positive and false negative results [30]. Importantly, comparison of treatment and control should not be performed separately in each subgroup, but formal test of interaction should be performed [30]. Of course, results of tests for interactions are likely to be convincing only if they were specified at the start of the study. In any study that presents subgroup analyses it is important to specify when and why the subgroups were chosen [30, 31].

McGraw-Hill Professional, New York Ratnam J, Bond WJ, Fensham RJ,

McGraw-Hill Professional, New York Ratnam J, Bond WJ, Fensham RJ, Hoffmann WA, Archibald S, Lehmann CER, Anderson MT, Higgins SI, Sankaran M (2011) When is a ‘forest’ a savanna, and why does it matter? Glob Ecol Biogeogr 20:653–660CrossRef Renaud PC (2006) Aerial & terrestrial inventory of the wildlife and mounting pressures in the National Park of Niokolo Koba. Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal Sanderson EW, Redford KH, Chetkiewicz CLB, Medellin RA, Rabinowitz AR et al (2002) Planning to save a species: the jaguar as a model. Conserv Biol 16:58–72CrossRef Sankaran M, Hanan NP,

BVD-523 cell line Scholes RJ, Ratnam J et al (2005) Determinants of woody cover in African savannas. Nature 438:846–849PubMedCrossRef Staver AC, Archibald S, Levin SA (2011) The global extent and determinants of savanna and forest as alternative biome states. Science 334:230–232PubMedCrossRef Treves A, Plumptre AJ, Hunter LTB, Ziwa J (2009) Identifying a potential lion Panthera leo stronghold in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, and Parc National des Virunga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Oryx 43:60–66CrossRef van Orsdol KG, Hanby JP, Bygott JD (1985) Ecological correlates of lion social organisation (Panthera leo). this website J Zool 206:97–112CrossRef

Woodroffe R (2000) Predators and people: using human densities to interpret declines of large carnivores. Anim Conserv 3:165–173CrossRef Woodroffe R, Ginsberg J (1998) Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Sci 280:2126–2128CrossRef Yamazaki K (1996) Social variation of lions in a male-depopulated area in

Zambia. J Wildl Manag 60(3):490–497CrossRef”
“Introduction Habitat loss and degradation are the greatest extinction threats to biodiversity in a variety of ecosystems and taxonomic groups (Jager et al. 2006; Fischer and Rapamycin molecular weight Lindenmayer 2007). The process of habitat degradation implies the gradual deterioration of habitat quality and can generate a pattern of variation in patch quality for a given species (Mortelliti et al. 2010). In degraded habitat a species may decline, occur at a lower density, or be unable to breed, thus the area becomes an “ecological trap” to which individuals of a species are attracted, but in which they cannot reproduce (Felton et al. 2003; Battin 2004; Hazell et al. 2004). Fragmentation makes the difference between persistence and extinction, since longer dispersal distances to find territories increases movement-related mortality, territories include lower quality habitat, which elevated habitat-related mortality and Alee effects (failure to find mates) reduce births (Jager et al. 2006). Habitat isolation can have a negative effect not only on the dispersal of juveniles (by decreasing population connectivity) but also, and to an even greater extent, on the day-to-day movements of a given territorial species (Fahrig 2003; Fischer and Lindenmayer 2007; Zabala et al. 2007b; Zalewski et al. 2009).

According to this model, the width of the localized states near t

According to this model, the width of the localized states near the mobility edges depends on the degree of disorder and defects present in the amorphous structure. In particular, it is known that unsaturated bonds together with some

saturated bonds are produced as the result of an insufficient number of atoms TGF-beta inhibitor deposited in the amorphous film [46]. The unsaturated bonds are responsible for the formation of some defects in the films, producing localized states in the amorphous solids. The presence of high concentration of localized states in the band structure is responsible for the decrease in optical bandgap on increasing dopant (Cd) concentration in these amorphous films of (PbSe)100−x Cd x nanoparticles. This decrease in optical bandgap may also be due to the shift in the Fermi level whose position is determined by the distribution of electrons over the localized states [47]. Figure 5 Temperature dependence of dc conductivity. It is Protease Inhibitor Library order in the range of 297 to 400 K at various concentrations of Cd in thin films of a-(PbSe)100−x Cd x nanoparticles. The values of refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) have been calculated using the theory of reflectivity of light. According to this theory, the reflectance of light from a thin film can be

expressed in term of the Fresnel’s coefficient. The reflectivity [48–50] on an interface is given as follows: (5) where the value of k has been calculated by using the following formula: (6) with λ is the wavelength. Figures 6 and 7 show the spectral dependence of the extinction coefficient and refractive Ibrutinib manufacturer index for a-(PbSe)100−x Cd x thin films.

It is observed that the values of these optical constants (n and k) increases with the increase in photon energy. A similar trend has also been observed for thin films of other various amorphous semiconductors [51, 52]. The values of n and k for different concentrations of Cd are given in Table 1. It is evident from the table that, overall, the value of these optical constants increases with the increase in dopant concentration. This can be understood on the basis of density of defect states. It is well known that chalcogenide thin films contain a high concentration of unsaturated bonds or defects. These defects are responsible for the presence of localized states in the amorphous bandgap [53]. In our case, the addition of Cd in the PbSe alloy results in the increased number of unsaturated defects. Due to this increase in the number of unsaturated defects, the density of localized states in the band structure increases, which consequently leads to the increase in values of refractive index and extinction coefficient with the addition of metal (Cd) content. Figure 6 ( α h ν ) 2 against photon energy (h ν ) for thin films of a-(PbSe) 100−x Cd x nanoparticles.

2004; Couvreur et al 2006; Hernández-Ugalde et al 2008, 2010; A

2004; Couvreur et al. 2006; Hernández-Ugalde et al. 2008, 2010; Araújo et al. 2010). At the same time low genetic differentiation and the exchange of seed material over extensive areas have been observed, at least in the Peruvian Amazon (Adin et al. 2004; Cole et al. 2007). Since peach palm, as a perennial, has a lengthy generation period, the risk of genetic erosion in cultivated populations is low, so on-farm conservation might be a good alternative for large germplasm collections (Van Leeuwen et al. 2005). This requires proper management of the genetic resources to keep the

risk of genetic erosion low (Cornelius selleck et al. 2006). These same authors compared the effects of different genetic improvement strategies on the trade-offs between genetic gain in cultivated peach palm populations and conservation of genetic resources in the Peruvian Amazon. Clonal seed orchards with associated progeny trials based initially on 450 or more trees could be effective for achieving genetic gain while minimizing genetic erosion. However,

this strategy requires vegetative propagation for multiplication (Mora-Urpí et al. 1997; Cornelius et al. 2006). Botero Botero and Atehortua (1999) reported on somatic embryogenesis in peach palm, but this technology is apparently not used to multiply selected accessions. Only in one collection have clones been selected for propagation (Table 2). Nevertheless, research is underway to further improve techniques, such as somatic embryogenesis,

for clonal propagation L-gulonolactone oxidase (Steinmacher Doxorubicin mw et al. 2007, 2011). In contrast to cultivated peach palm, wild populations (being important resources for genetic improvement) are threatened by deforestation, driven mainly by agricultural expansion and the transition of forest to savannah (Clement et al. 2009). How this threat affects the three taxonomically different wild types (see Henderson 2000) is not clear, because their distribution is not yet well defined (Clement et al. 2009). Wild peach palm trees are found in disturbed ecosystems, on river banks and in primary forest gaps (Mora-Urpí et al. 1997). They often occur in isolation or at low densities (Mora-Urpí et al. 1997; Da Silva and Clement 2005). Though no definitive studies have been conducted on seed dispersal of peach palm, it is probably restricted locally to dispersal by birds and seed-gathering mammals, though seed may occasionally be dispersed by water, potentially over greater distances (Mora-Urpí et al. 1997; Clement et al. 2009). Gene flow of outcrossing tree species with this type of scattered distribution may be restricted and could result in genetically distinct isolated subpopulations with small effective population sizes (Mora-Urpí et al. 1997). This has implications for conservation strategies, which require further research. It is probably too expensive to conserve ex situ a significant number of wild palm accessions; strategies that maximize in situ conservation of wild populations seem more feasible.

To measure the electrical property of the films, Au top electrode

To measure the electrical property of the films, Au top electrodes were patterned and deposited by sputtering using a metal shadow mask. Voltage–current curves Daporinad clinical trial of the films were measured using an Autolab 302 N electrochemical workstation controlled with Nova software (with a possible error in current and voltage values as ±5%; Nova Software, Chongqing, China). All measurements were repeated at least twice to confirm the results. During measurement, the working electrode and sensor electrode were connected to the top Au electrode, and the reference and counter electrode were connected to the ITO substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performed with an ESCALAB250Xi spectrometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham,

MA, USA) using a monochromatized Al K alpha X-ray source (hV) 1486.6 eV with 20 eV pass energy. Hall effect measurements were carried out by the Accent HL5500PC (Nanometrics, SRT1720 clinical trial Milpitas, CA, USA). All measurements were performed at room temperature. Results and discussion The electrochemical synthesis of ZnO is a four-step process: First, nitrate ions and H2O are electrochemically reduced at the surface of the working electrode, resulting in an increase in the local pH value in the vicinity of the electrode

(Equations 1 and 2). Then, the increase in the local pH leads to the precipitation of zinc ions as zinc hydroxide (Zn(OH)2, Equation 3) at a suitable temperature, and Zn(OH)2 can be transformed into ZnO. In the presence of Ti4+, part of the Ti4+ ions can be incorporated into ZnO lattices. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Figure 1a shows the SEM images of Ti-ZnO film. It is apparent that the grains are formed by many small crystallites aggregated with irregular shapes. In the inset of the same figure, a cross-sectional image was presented which shows film thickness as approximately 330 nm. EDS elemental maps are shown in Figure 1b,c,d. The O, Zn and Ti Vitamin B12 elemental maps have the same spatial distribution. This indicates a quite uniform distribution of elements in the synthesized products

and demonstrates that the ZnO films are homogenously doped with Ti. The EDS spectra and element atomic percentage compositions were presented in the supporting information in Additional file 1: Figure S1. Figure 1 The surface morphology of Ti-ZnO film. (a) The SEM (inset cross-sectional image) and EDS mapping (b, c and d) images of Ti-ZnO films. The XRD pattern of the Ti-doped ZnO film (inset pure ZnO film) was displayed in Figure 2. The XRD patterns of the films are consistent with the hexagonal lattice structure, and a strong (002) preferential orientation is observed. It implies that the Ti atoms may substitute the zinc sites substitutionally or incorporate interstitially in the lattice. From Figure 2, it can be found that the locations of the diffraction peaks slightly shift towards higher diffraction angles, which illustrate the change in interplanar spacing (d-value). This is because of the different ionic radii between Ti4+ (0.

Most importantly, inclusion of epitopes that are immuno-responsiv

Most importantly, inclusion of epitopes that are immuno-responsive

to different arms of the host immune machinery, such as CTL and Th epitope combinations can enable stronger and more efficient immune responses, similar to responses achieved with adjuvant therapies (e.g., [45, 48, 49, 103]). Thus, our study provides a unique strategy to identify suitable epitope candidates for multi-gene/multi-type vaccines that are both highly conserved across the global HIV-1 population and highly likely to co-occur together in the same viral genome in various Saracatinib mouse HIV-1 subtypes and thus can be simultaneously targeted by multi-epitope vaccines. Some of these conserved epitopes have been included in several recently tested vaccine candidates that showed promising results; however, none have included associated epitopes from all three genes. For example, segments of Gag, Pol and Nef were included in the recent LIPO-5 lipopeptide vaccine trial that Idasanutlin showed T-cell responses

in ~50% of vaccines [104], yet it lacked associated epitopes from Pol (Additional file 11). Further, because the included epitopes are already derived from the lists of epitopes with experimentally demonstrated immunogenicity in humans, (e.g., the list of “”best defined”" CTL epitopes by Frahm et al., 2007 [56]), many challenges associated with the accuracy of computational epitope prediction (e.g., [87, 105, 106]) can be avoided. Moreover, while sequence conservation does not assure that the epitope will be strongly immunogenic (e.g., [107, 108]), associated epitopes reported in this study also exhibit a high degree of nucleotide sequence conservation which is not readily identifiable the by other tools, such as Epitope

Conservancy Analysis Tool [107], making them suitable targets for other types of treatments such as RNA interference [109]. Notably, a high degree of amino acid sequence conservation is not the only factor that influences identification of epitopes as promising candidates. For example, several epitopes included in the association rule mining, namely, PIPIHYCAPA (Ab, Env), WASRELERF (CTL, Gag) and RKAKIIRDY (CTL, Pol), were not involved in any of the 60626 associations that we discovered, showing that high conservation at the amino acid level does not automatically translate into involvement in association rules and that other factors are also at play.

Inter-tester variability was very low between these measurements

Inter-tester variability was very low between these measurements (CV < 1%). The average of the three times was recorded for each trial. Each subject completed the test twice and the fastest

trial time was recorded. Vertical jump test: The test was performed on Friday of the ITD period. Subjects completed three vertical jumps, measured using a Vertec™ vertical jump assessment device with 0.5 inch increments. Countermovement jumps were performed for all trials, as described by Byrne and Eston [33]. Subjects were permitted to utilize their arms in the movement. The highest jump height of the three trials was recorded for each subject. Treatments and Dietary Controls Immediately following each training session of the ITD period, subjects consumed one of two recovery treatment beverages see more described below. Specific treatments were assigned to Paclitaxel cost the subjects using a randomly-counterbalanced design. Beverages were consumed within 5 minutes of completion of each exercise session. Low-Fat Chocolate Milk Beverage (CM): Each

serving consisted of 672 ml of CM, containing 84 g CHO, 28 g protein, 7 g fat, and approximately 504 total kcal (Table 2). Thus, each serving provided approximately 1.1 g CHO·kgBW-1, which approximates levels associated with optimal recovery of muscle glycogen [34, 35]. Table 2 Comparison of Beverage Ingredients Nutrient CM CHO Volume (mL) 672 672 Energy (kcal) 504 504 Carbohydrate (g) 84 122 Protein (g) 28 0 Fat (g) 7 2 Sodium (mg) 511 277 Potassium (mg) 0 202 Vitamin C (mg) 7 302 Vitamin E (mg) 0 101 Calcium (mg) 852 101 Carbohydrate Beverage (CHO): Each serving provided 672 ml of an 18.6% carbohydrate beverage (~1.5 g CHO·kgBW-1), providing 122 g CHO, 0 g protein, 2 g fat, and approximately 504 total kcal (Table 2). Chocolate-flavored commercially-available carbohydrate gels (Clif Shots®) were mixed with water to provide similar taste and color to the CM beverage. Subjects were assigned these their beverage treatment order by a laboratory assistant who was not directly involved in the study, via a coin-flip. Once half of

the participants had been assigned one of the beverages for their first treatment period (either CM or CHO), any remaining subjects were assigned the alternative beverage, to insure a counterbalanced allocation of treatments. Beverage preparation and labelling was conducted by an investigator who did not participate in the data collection process. Researchers were not aware which beverages the subjects were receiving until the study was completed. Similarly, the subjects were not informed of the composition of the beverages until cessation of the study. Anecdotal reports from subjects following the study suggest that subjects were aware of differences in taste between the beverages, but had no preconceived notions regarding differing ingredients or perceived efficacy. However, no systematic data was collected regarding subject perceptions of the beverages.

The excavated pipe was installed in 1949 and exposed to residenti

The excavated pipe was installed in 1949 and exposed to residential waste. Biomass was removed from the crown (top section of the pipe, TP) and invert (bottom, BP) sections using a sterile

metal spatula by scraping approximately 4 cm2 surface area of each material. Biomass was then transferred to sterile tubes and stored at −20°C. Total DNA was extracted using UltraClean Soil DNA kit following the manufacturer’s instructions (MoBio Laboratories Inc., Solana Beach, CA) and used as a template for the generation of pyrosequencing metagenome libraries. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses Sequences from Bacteroidetes (n=236), sulfate reducing (n=56) and sulfur oxidizing (n=164) bacteria obtained Selleck INCB024360 from a previous study [11] were used to develop phylogenetic trees. Briefly, 16S rRNA gene primers 8F and 787R were used to generate community PCR products, which were then cloned using TOPO TA vectors. Clones were sequenced in both directions and assembled using Sequencher software (Gene Codes Corp, Ann Arbor,

MI). Sequences were assigned to specific bacterial groups using MOTHUR v1.19.2 (http://​www.​mothur.​org) with 97% sequence identity as the cut off point for each Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU). Phylogenetic trees were constructed from the alignments STA-9090 datasheet based on the Maximum Likelihood method and calculated using Tamura-Nei model [12]. MEGA v5.03 [13] was used to build trees using 100 replicates to develop bootstrap confidence values. The Classifier tool of the Ribosomal Database Project II release 10.26 [14] and BLASTn [15] were used to classify and identify the nearest neighbors. Cluster analysis of wastewater concrete biofilms Cluster analysis based on the transformed (log[x+1]) relative abundance data was eltoprazine used to compare communities associated with different wastewater concrete biofilms. First, we estimated the taxonomic distribution at the genus level of each microbial community from 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences generated in this study and Sanger-chemistry 16S rRNA gene sequences generated in previous studies [7–10]. This information was used to generate Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients of the transformed data

using the software PAST v2.03 [16]. This estimator compares the structures by accounting for the abundance distributions of attributes (e.g. species). Dendrograms indicating relationship of biofilms generated by comparing similarity coefficients estimates among sample sites were calculated using the UPGMA method with the software MEGA v5.03 [13]. Metagenomic studies Pyrosequencing was performed using the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX Titanium® platform. Prior to sequence analysis we implemented a dereplication pipeline (http://​microbiomes.​msu.​edu/​replicates) to identify and remove clusters of artificially replicated sequences, i.e. reads that began at the same position but varied in length or contained a sequencing discrepancy [17]. Filter parameters included a cutoff value of 0.

hinnulea and M thermophila The group of 11 isolates of M therm

hinnulea and M. thermophila. The group of 11 isolates of M. thermophila clustered into two main groups with the exception of M. thermophila CBS663.74. This latter isolate was placed between the two groups LY2835219 of M. thermophila in the ITS1 and EF1A trees, but grouped with CBS131.65, CBS202.75, CBS203.75 and CBS375.69 in the RPB2 tree. The genetic variation within M. thermophila was further investigated by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). The banding patterns of the 11 M. thermophila isolates confirmed the clustering in two groups (Fig. 4).

The sequence data and AFLP analysis placed CBS117.65, CBS173.70, CBS381.97, CBS669.85, CBS866.85 and ATCC42464 in one group, while CBS131.65, CBS202.75, CBS203.75 and CBS375.69 were placed in a second group. The AFLP banding pattern of CBS663.74 did not fit with either of the groups, thus confirming the results of the phylogenies of ITS1 and EF1A (Figs. 1 and 2) in which CBS663.74 occurred outside both groups of M. thermophila. Fig. 4 Clustering of AFLP banding patterns of Myceliophthora thermophila isolates. Similarity of the banding patterns

is given in percentage Mating types of Myceliophthora thermophila isolates The mating behavior of each M. thermophila Poziotinib chemical structure isolate was studied by crossing the two mating types CBS202.75 and CBS203.75 with each of the nine other M. thermophila isolates. After 3 weeks, all plates had ascomata containing dark brown ascospores at the contact zone between CBS202.75 and CBS203.75 (Fig. 5e–g). The dark colored ascomata were produced in the agar media and were only visible at the reverse of plates (Fig. 5a–d). The mating experiment showed that CBS202.75 and CBS663.74 had the same mating type, while CBS203.75, CBS131.65, and CBS375.69 had the opposite mating type (Table 2). These isolates all belong to one of the

M. thermophila groups based on the phylogenies described above. The remaining six M. thermophila isolates, belonged to the other phylogenetic group, and did not produce fruiting bodies at the contact zone with CBS202.75 or CBS203.75. Moreover, when combined with each other on oatmeal agar plates, isolates CBS117.65, CBS173.70, CBS381.97, CBS669.85, CBS866.85 and ATCC42464 were Farnesyltransferase not able to produce fruiting bodies after 4 weeks at 30°C, 35°C, 40°C or 45°C. Fig. 5 Plates with different Myceliophthora thermophila isolates and microscope pictures of the formed ascoma. Figure a and b are, respectively, the reverse and obverse of a plate depicting the mating between M. thermophila CBS375.69 & CBS202.75 and CBS202.75 & CBS203.75. Figure c and d are, respectively, the reverse and obverse of a plate depicting the mating between M. thermophila CBS663.74 & CBS203.75, and CBS202.75 & CBS203.75. Formed ascoma in figure a and c are indicated with an arrow. Figure e, f and g are microscope pictures of the produced ascoma and ascospores, respectively, ×100, ×400 and × 1000 Table 2 Mating types of Myceliophthora thermophila Accession no.

Mobile elements

Mobile elements Torin 1 supplier play an important role in the diversification of bacterial genomes. One important group of mobile genetic elements is the Tn916 family of conjugative transposons (also known as integrative and conjugative elements [ICEs]) [18]. These conjugative transposons usually code for tetracycline resistance and are found primarily in the Firmicutes. Numerous transposons have been described to be present in C. difficile genomes [5, 7, 11, 17, 19]. Several elements closely related to Tn916 are present in diverse C. difficile strains, including Tn5397 which confers tetracycline resistance [20, 21]. Other transposons have been described to confer resistance to chloramphenicol

and erythromycin [5]. Recently, the first full length genome of a PCR ribotype 078 strain was published [5]. This M120 strain has been isolated from an Irish diarrheic patient. It was shown that PCR ribotype 078 is highly divergent from PCR ribotype 027, 001, 017 and 012. In addition, this PCR ribotype 078 strain was described to contain a unique 100 kb insert that showed 80% similarity to sequences of Thermoanaerobacter species and Streptococcus pneumoniae[5]. In this paper we show that the 100 kb insert is a mobile element that

is only sporadically present in PCR ribotype 078 strains. Furthermore, we show that the 100 kb consists of at least two independent mobile elements that were fused during evolution. Results Previously, an insert, unique for C. difficile, was described in the genome of strain M120, a PCR ribotype 078 strain, GPCR Compound Library chemical structure isolated Fossariinae from an Irish diarrheic patient [5]. We analyzed the open reading frames (ORFs) present in the insert to investigate their nature and origin (see Figure 1 and Table 1). Figure 1 Schematic view of full Tn 6164 (top panel) and half the element (bottom panel) and its open reading frames, flanked by C. difficile regions. Various parts of the insert are colored

according to their homology. White, C. difficile; Red, Module A; Yellow, Module B; Purple, Module C; Orange, Module D; Blue, Module E; black, unknown. Location of the oligonucleotides used for the data in Table 2 is indicated by arrowheads Table 1 Open reading frames encoded by Tn 6164 Gene Position on Tn 6164 Module Sequence identity to Annotation Gene Position on Tn 6164 Module Sequence identity to Annotation Orf1 650-1930 A – putative modification methylase Orf25 26793-27122 B – conserved hypothetical protein Orf2 1915-3186 A – putative modification methylase Orf26 27189-28451 B Thermoanaerobacter sp. HK97 family phage portal protein Orf3 3252-3962 A – hypothetical protein Orf27 28448-29128 B Thermoanaerobacter sp. Peptidase S14, ClpP Orf4 3952-5031 A – ATPase associated with various cellular activities Orf28 29140-30339 B Thermoanaerobacter sp.