McGraw-Hill Professional, New York Ratnam J, Bond WJ, Fensham RJ,

McGraw-Hill Professional, New York Ratnam J, Bond WJ, Fensham RJ, Hoffmann WA, Archibald S, Lehmann CER, Anderson MT, Higgins SI, Sankaran M (2011) When is a ‘forest’ a savanna, and why does it matter? Glob Ecol Biogeogr 20:653–660CrossRef Renaud PC (2006) Aerial & terrestrial inventory of the wildlife and mounting pressures in the National Park of Niokolo Koba. Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal Sanderson EW, Redford KH, Chetkiewicz CLB, Medellin RA, Rabinowitz AR et al (2002) Planning to save a species: the jaguar as a model. Conserv Biol 16:58–72CrossRef Sankaran M, Hanan NP,

BVD-523 cell line Scholes RJ, Ratnam J et al (2005) Determinants of woody cover in African savannas. Nature 438:846–849PubMedCrossRef Staver AC, Archibald S, Levin SA (2011) The global extent and determinants of savanna and forest as alternative biome states. Science 334:230–232PubMedCrossRef Treves A, Plumptre AJ, Hunter LTB, Ziwa J (2009) Identifying a potential lion Panthera leo stronghold in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, and Parc National des Virunga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Oryx 43:60–66CrossRef van Orsdol KG, Hanby JP, Bygott JD (1985) Ecological correlates of lion social organisation (Panthera leo). this website J Zool 206:97–112CrossRef

Woodroffe R (2000) Predators and people: using human densities to interpret declines of large carnivores. Anim Conserv 3:165–173CrossRef Woodroffe R, Ginsberg J (1998) Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Sci 280:2126–2128CrossRef Yamazaki K (1996) Social variation of lions in a male-depopulated area in

Zambia. J Wildl Manag 60(3):490–497CrossRef”
“Introduction Habitat loss and degradation are the greatest extinction threats to biodiversity in a variety of ecosystems and taxonomic groups (Jager et al. 2006; Fischer and Rapamycin molecular weight Lindenmayer 2007). The process of habitat degradation implies the gradual deterioration of habitat quality and can generate a pattern of variation in patch quality for a given species (Mortelliti et al. 2010). In degraded habitat a species may decline, occur at a lower density, or be unable to breed, thus the area becomes an “ecological trap” to which individuals of a species are attracted, but in which they cannot reproduce (Felton et al. 2003; Battin 2004; Hazell et al. 2004). Fragmentation makes the difference between persistence and extinction, since longer dispersal distances to find territories increases movement-related mortality, territories include lower quality habitat, which elevated habitat-related mortality and Alee effects (failure to find mates) reduce births (Jager et al. 2006). Habitat isolation can have a negative effect not only on the dispersal of juveniles (by decreasing population connectivity) but also, and to an even greater extent, on the day-to-day movements of a given territorial species (Fahrig 2003; Fischer and Lindenmayer 2007; Zabala et al. 2007b; Zalewski et al. 2009).

Comments are closed.