Defensin mRNA levels were quantified by reverse transcription-pol

Defensin mRNA levels were quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and peptide release into culture supernatants was quantified by immuno dot blot or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Increasing concentrations of SEB down-regulated DEFA5, DEFA6 and DEFB1 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner but increased DEFB2 simultaneously. The down-regulation of alpha-defensins was reversed by dexamethasone. DEFA5 and DEFB2 peptide secretion levels were altered in parallel with mRNA. Interferon-gamma and interleukin (IL)-1 beta exhibited

a dose-dependent down-regulation of alpha-defensin mRNA, IL-6 significantly down-regulated only DEFA6; in contrast, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-4 had no significant effect. Immune cell activation and proinflammatory cytokines down-regulated the constitutively expressed DEFA5, DEFA6 and DEFB1 defensins, and up-regulated DEFB2 in intact human intestinal tissue explants in short-term culture. The effect of local immune activation on innate defence may explain the reduced alpha-defensin

expression noted in inflammatory T cell-mediated enteropathies.”
“Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 utilizes para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. In order to identify the genes involved in this utilization, we cloned and sequenced a 12.7-kb fragment containing a conserved see more region of NAD(P) H: quinone oxidoreductase genes. Of the products of the 13 open reading frames deduced from this fragment, PnpA shares 24% identity to the large component of a 3-hydroxy-phenylacetate hydroxylase AZD9291 from Pseudomonas putida U and PnpB is 58% identical to an NAD(P) H: quinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli. Both PnpA and PnpB were purified to homogeneity as His-tagged proteins, and they were considered to be a monomer and a dimer, respectively, as determined by gel filtration. PnpA is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent single-component

PNP 4-monooxygenase that converts PNP to para-benzoquinone in the presence of NADPH. PnpB is a flavin mononucleotide-and NADPH-dependent p-benzoquinone reductase that catalyzes the reduction of p-benzoquinone to hydroquinone. PnpB could enhance PnpA activity, and genetic analyses indicated that both pnpA and pnpB play essential roles in PNP mineralization in strain WBC-3. Furthermore, the pnpCDEF gene cluster next to pnpAB shares significant similarities with and has the same organization as a gene cluster responsible for hydroquinone degradation (hapCDEF) in Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB (M.J. Moonen, N.M. Kamerbeek, A.H. Westphal, S.A. Boeren, D.B. Janssen, M.W. Fraaije, and W.J. van Berkel, J. Bacteriol. 190: 5190-5198, 2008), suggesting that the genes involved in PNP degradation are physically linked.

The statement does not set out to make specific recommendations a

The statement does not set out to make specific recommendations about psychosocial assessment and depression screening (as these will need to be devised locally depending on existing resources and models of care) nor does it attempt to summarise the vast evidence-base relevant to this debate. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Aims: New markers to help stratify coronary atherosclerosis are needed. Although attempts have been made to differentiate active lesions from those that are stable, none of these has ever been formalised into a discriminatory score.

The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between culprit ACS lesions and culprit stable angina lesions with intravascular ultrasound-derived virtual histology and to construct and validate a plaque score. Methods and JQ1 clinical trial results: Prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), we performed volumetric, intravascular ultrasound-derived virtual histology (IVUS-VH) analysis in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) culprit lesions (AC – n=70) and stable

angina culprit lesions (SC – n=35). A direct statistical comparison of IVUS-VH data and multiple logistic regression analysis IWR-1-endo clinical trial was undertaken. Four main factors were found to be associated (p smaller than 0.05) with an AC lesion phenotype: necrotic core/dense calcium (NC/DC) ratio; minimum lumen area smaller than 4 mm(2) (MLA smaller than 4); remodelling index @MLA bigger than 1.05 and VH-TCFA presence. Calculation of each logistic regression coefficient and the equation produces an active plaque discrimination score with an AUC of 0.96 on receiver PKC inhibitor operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Validation of the score in 50 independent plaques from the Thoraxcenter in Rotterdam revealed an AUC of 0.71, confirming continued diagnostic ability.

Conclusions: We have found four features on IVUS and VH that can predict and discriminate ACS culprit lesion phenotypes from those that are clinically stable. Subsequently, we have constructed and validated the Liverpool Active Plaque Score based upon these features. It is hoped this score may help diagnose active coronary plaques, in the future, to help prevent major adverse cardiac events.”
“All-in-one assemblies of separator, electrode and current collector (SECA) for lithium ion batteries are presented by using 1D nanowires of Si and Cu (nwSi and nwCu). Even without binders, integrity of SECA is secured via structural joints based on ductility of Cu as well as entanglement of nwSi and nwCu. By controlling the ratio of the nanowires, the number of contact points and voids accommodating volume expansion of Si active material are tunable. Zero volume expansion and high energy density are simultaneously achievable by the architecture.”
“BACKGROUND: alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) is a tumour-associated antigen in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is a target for immunotherapy.

The model included GA, BW, and daily weight gain rate Run weekly

The model included GA, BW, and daily weight gain rate. Run weekly, an alarm that indicated need for eye examinations occurred when the predicted probability of severe ROP was > 0.085. This identified 66 of 67 severe ROP infants (sensitivity of 99% [95% confidence interval: 94%-100%]), and all 33 infants requiring treatment. Median alarm-to-outcome time was 10.8 weeks click here (range: 1.9-17.6). There were 110 (30%) infants who had no alarm. Nomograms were developed to determine risk of severe ROP by BW, GA, and postnatal weight gain.\n\nCONCLUSION:

In a high-risk cohort, a BW-GA-weight-gain model could have reduced the need for examinations by 30%, while still identifying all infants requiring laser surgery. Additional studies are required to determine whether including larger-BW, lower-risk infants would reduce examinations further and to validate the prediction model and nomograms before clinical use. Pediatrics 2011; 127: Elafibranor nmr e607-e614″
“Sixty-nine fungal strains

were isolated countrywide from 10 Vietnamese soils, in areas both with and without a history of exposure to Agent Orange, and their degrading activities on the phenoxy acid herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), as well as related compounds, were examined. Among taxonomically various fungi, 45, 12 and 4% of the isolates degraded phenoxyacetic acid (PA), 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, respectively. While the PA-degrading fungi were distributed to all sites and among many genera, the 2,4-D-degraders were found only in order Eurotiales in class Eurotiomycetes. All of the 2,4,5-T-degrading fungal strains were phylogenetically close to Eupenicillium spp. and were isolated from southern Vietnam. As a degradation intermediate, the corresponding phenol compounds were detected in some strains. The degradation substrate spectrum for

26 compounds of Eupenicillium spp. strains including 2,4,5-T-degraders and -non-degraders seemed to be related to phylogenetic similarity and soil sampling location of the isolates. These results suggest that the heavily contaminated environments enhanced the adaptation of the phylogenetic group of Eupenicillium Rigosertib spp. toward to obtain the ability to degrade 2,4,5-T.”
“Gephyrin, the principal scaffolding protein at inhibitory synapses, is essential for postsynaptic clustering of glycine and GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs). Gephyrin cluster formation, which determines the strength of GABAergic transmission, is modulated by interaction with signaling proteins and post-translational modifications. Here, we show that gephyrin was found to be associated with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the major source of the ubiquitous and important signaling molecule NO in brain. Furthermore, we identified that gephyrin is S-nitrosylated in vivo. Overexpression of nNOS decreased the size of postsynaptic gephyrin clusters in primary hippocampal neurons.

iPhage particles provide a unique discovery platform for combinat

iPhage particles provide a unique discovery platform for combinatorial intracellular targeting of organelle ligands along with their corresponding receptors and for fingerprinting functional protein domains in living cells. Here we explain the design, cloning, construction and production of iPhage-based vectors and libraries, along with basic ligand-receptor identification and validation methodologies for organelle receptors. An iPhage library screening can be performed in similar to 8 weeks.”
“The C4 protein

of beet curly top virus [BCTV-B (US:Log:76)] induces hyperplasia in infected phloem tissue and tumorigenic growths in transgenic plants. The protein offers an excellent model for studying cell cycle control, cell differentiation, and plant development. To investigate the role of the C4 protein in plant development, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the C4 transgene was expressed under the control of an inducible promoter. A detailed analysis of the developmental changes that occur in cotyledons and

hypocotyls of seedlings expressing the C4 transgene showed extensive cell division in all tissues types examined, radically altered tissue layer organization, and the absence of a clearly defined vascular system. Induced buy Blebbistatin seedlings failed to develop true leaves, lateral roots, and shoot and root apical meristems, as well as vascular tissue. Specialized epidermis structures, such as stomata and root hairs, were either absent or developmentally impaired in seedlings that expressed C4 protein. Exogenous

application of brassinosteroid and abscisic acid weakly rescued the C4-induced phenotype, while induced seedlings were hypersensitive to gibberellic acid and kinetin. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the BCTV C4 protein in A. thaliana drastically alters plant development, possibly through MK5108 clinical trial the disruption of multiple hormonal pathways.”
“Background: Agomelatine is a melatonergic receptor agonist and a 5HT(2C) receptor antagonist that has shown antidepressant efficacy. In order to analyze separately the effect of the two receptorial components, rats were chronically treated with agomelatine, melatonin (endogenous melatonergic agonist), or S32006 (5-HT2C antagonist), and then subjected to acute footshock-stress.\n\nResults: Only chronic agomelatine, but not melatonin or S32006, completely prevented the stress-induced increase of glutamate release in the rat prefrontal/frontal cortex.\n\nConclusions: These results suggest a potential synergy between melatonergic and serotonergic pathways in the action of agomelatine.”
“The survival and success of alien plant species is determined by species traits (i.e., invasiveness) and the characteristics of the habitats in the region of introduction (i.e., invasibility).

“Thermal transport through < 100 > and < 110 >

“Thermal transport through < 100 > and < 110 > rough Si nanowires selleck chemical is investigated using an atomistic quantum transport approach based on a modified Keating model and the wave function formalism. The thermal conductance, resistance, and conductivity are calculated for different nanowire lengths and the root mean square of the rough surfaces. The simulation results show that thermal transport is diffusive in rough nanowires without surrounding oxide layers. Its degradation,

as compared to ideal structures, cannot be attributed to phonon localization effects, but to the properties of the phonon band structure. Phonon bands with an almost flat dispersion cannot propagate through disordered structures due to the mode mismatch between adjacent unit cells. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3644993]“
“Background: Sleep problems associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may have an important impact

on quality of life and health outcome measures in patients. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess differences in symptom profile and polysomnographic parameters in patients with stable mild to moderate COPD and age, gender, and body-mass-index matched controls without airflow obstruction.\n\nMethods: The Sleep Disorders Questionnaire was administered to both patients and controls prior to clinical and polysomnographic evaluation. Responses obtained from the questionnaire were used

to construct four independent symptom scales: sleep apnea, periodic limb movement syndrome, psychiatric MEK inhibitor sleep disorder, and narcolepsy. Associations between each diagnostic scale and sleep parameters were considered by means of multiple analyses of covariance.\n\nResults: Fifty-two patients with mild-to-moderate COPD (age 62 +/- 8 years, BMI 29 +/- 7 kg/sqm) and 52 age, gender, and body-weight matched controls without COPD were studied. Patients with COPD had overall lower sleep efficiency, a lower total sleep time, and lower mean overnight oxygen saturation compared to controls. Patients with COPD were significantly more likely to report symptoms such as insomnia and difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep, resulting in overall higher psychiatric sleep disorder scale scores in patients compared with controls. Minimum oxygen saturation was an independent predictor for all symptom scales. After correcting for potentially confounding factors, including pack/years of smoking, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, arousal index, mean and minimum oxygen saturation, and apnea-hypopnea-index, the between group-differences for both the periodic limb movement and psychiatric sleep disorder scale scores remained statistically significant.\n\nConclusions: We observed significant differences in both quantity and quality of sleep between patients with stable mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respective controls.

Mol Cancer Ther; 9(6); 1709-18 (C)2010 AACR “
“The interleu

Mol Cancer Ther; 9(6); 1709-18. (C)2010 AACR.”
“The interleukin-12B (IL12B) gene encodes the p40 chain of IL-12, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that antagonizes Th2 phenotype and, hence, may have a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. In this report, we describe the identification of a

novel IL12B promoter polymorphism (T-to-A exchange) at position -536. The IL12B -536AA genotype was significantly associated with asthma in the Chinese populations (P = 0.011, odds ratio = 2.227). The selleck products risk-associated A allele was linked to reduced expression of IL12B mRNA levels and IL12B production in asthmatic patients. Luciferase reporter assay provided evidence that risk-associated A allele reduced the promoter activity of IL12B gene compared with those of the promoter containing the protective T allele. We further observed that decreasing binding effects between the risk alleles A of IL12B and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha) through A allele sequence mediated streptavidin-conjugated agarose pulldown and biotin-labelled A allele mediated electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We also observed additive effects of the risk alleles of IL12B and decreased mRNA levels of C/EBPa in asthmatic MCC950 concentration patients. Therefore, we postulated

that the presence of -536A allele in IL12B promoter could predispose to the development of allergic asthma.”
“P>Background:\n\nEmergency medicine (EM) in North America has been undergoing significant transformation since the new century. Recent health care reform has put it center stage. Access demand for acute care is increasing at the same time the number of qualified emergency physicians entering service has reached a plateau. Physician assistants (PAs), one alternative, are employed in emergency departments (EDs), but little is known about the impact of their role.\n\nObjectives:\n\nThis was a literature review to identify the current role of PAs in patient treatment and the management of

emergency services.\n\nMethods:\n\nAll publications and designs from 1970 through 2009 were identified using multiple science citation indices. Each author reviewed the literature, and categories were developed based on consensus.\n\nResults:\n\nThirty-five articles Epacadostat chemical structure and reports were sorted into categories of interest: prevalence of PAs in EDs, efficiency and quality of care, patient satisfaction, rural emergency care, and legal issues. Each category is summarized and discussed. Evidence comparing the clinical effectiveness of PAs to mainstream management of emergency care was only fair in methodologic quality.\n\nConclusions:\n\nThe use of PAs in EDs is increasing, and this expansion is due to necessity in staffing and economy of scale. Unique uses of PAs include wound management, acute care transfer management to the wards, and rural health emergency staffing.

For the quantum wire stacks with different InAs layer thicknesses

For the quantum wire stacks with different InAs layer thicknesses and a separation of 8 nm, double peak photoluminescence spectra were observed in the sample with 4 ML of InAs, and a main peak with a long wavelength component was obtained from the sample with 3 ML of InAs. Only a single peak was detectable for the InAs layer thicknesses

of 5 and 7 ML. The optical emission features were studied via temperature and excitation laser power dependent photoluminescence. Based on the photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy observations, photoluminescence spectral features can be attributed to a bi-modal height distribution in certain samples. In order to extend the optical emission to room temperature, the sample with 5 ML of InAs and an 8 nm spacer layer was subjected to post-growth Selleckchem JNK-IN-8 rapid thermal annealing at different temperatures. The emission

wavelength was tunable from 1.63 to 1.72 mu m at room temperature. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3598082]“
“Nicotinic drugs have been proposed as putative drugs to treat Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this study, we investigated whether nicotine can sensitize parkinsonian animals to the effect of dopaminergic drugs. Testing this hypothesis is important because nicotine has been shown to present neuroprotective and acute symptomatic effects on PD, but few studies have addressed the question of whether it may induce long-lasting effects on dopamine neurotransmission. We tested this hypothesis in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD. A pretreatment of these rats with 0.1-1.0 mg/kg nicotine induced a dose-dependent sensitization of the turning behavior Staurosporine ic50 when the animals were challenged with the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine 24 h later. In agreement with previous studies, while apomorphine induced contraversive turns, nicotine, as well as amphetamine, induced ipsiversive turns in the 6-OHDA rats. This result suggests that, like amphetamine, nicotine induces turning selleck kinase inhibitor behavior by promoting release of

dopamine in the non-lesioned striatum of the rats. However, it is unlikely that the release of dopamine may also explain the nicotine-induced sensitization of turning behavior. First, the dopamine amount that could be released in the lesioned hemi-striatum by the nicotine pretreatment was minimum-less than 3%, as detected by HPLC-EC. Second, a pretreatment with amphetamine did not induce this behavioral sensitization. A pretreatment with apomorphine-induced sensitization, but it was minimal when compared to that induced by nicotine. Therefore, it is unlikely that the sensitization of the turning behavior induced by nicotine was consequent of the release of dopamine. However, the expression of such sensitization seems to depend on the activation of dopaminergic receptors, since it was seen when the nicotine-sensitized animals were challenged with apomorphine, but not with a second nicotine challenge.

As expected, the

As expected, the selleck inhibitor vBmBac(polh(+))-LacZ polyhedra contained an amount of LacZ and had a higher beta-galactosidase activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting were also performed to verify if the foreign proteins were immobilized into polyhedra. This study provides a new inspiration for efficient preservation of useful proteins and development of new pesticides with toxic proteins.”
“Sessile organisms such as plants have to develop adaptive responses to face environmental change. In Arabidopsis thaliana populations, natural variation for stress responses have been observed at different levels

of integration and the genetic bases of those variations have been analysed using two strategies: classical linkage and association (LD) mapping. The strength of Arabidopsis resides in the huge amount of genomic data and molecular tools available Vactosertib order leading to the identification of many polymorphisms responsible for phenotypic variation. Remaining limitations to clearly understand how Arabidopsis adapts to its environment, that is the complexity of the genetic architecture and the lack of ecological data, should be partially solved thanks to the development of new methods and the

acquisition of new data.”
“A number of philosophers working in applied ethics and bioethics are now earnestly debating the ethics of what they term “moral bioenhancement.” I argue that the society-wide program of biological manipulations required to achieve the purported goals of moral bioenhancement would

necessarily implicate the state in a controversial moral perfectionism. Moreover, the prospect of being able to reliably identify some people as, by biological constitution, significantly and consistently more moral NVP-BEZ235 than others would seem to pose a profound challenge to egalitarian social and political ideals. Even if moral bioenhancement should ultimately prove to be impossible, there is a chance that a bogus science of bioenhancement would lead to arbitrary inequalities in access to political power or facilitate the unjust rule of authoritarians; in the meantime, the debate about the ethics of moral bioenhancement risks reinvigorating dangerous ideas about the extent of natural inequality in the possession of the moral faculties.”
“Using a power type equation for friction factor, this paper presents a design procedure which provides accurate solutions for three types of pipe design problems (Types A-C) taking into consideration the effect of local losses. The parameters introduced in the power type equation are related to the type and size of commercial pipes. Thus, several dimensionless physical numbers, obtained by suitably combining the variables relevant for the solution of Type B and Type C problems, are also introduced.

Eighty-nine patients with paranasal sinus osteomas were readmitte

Eighty-nine patients with paranasal sinus osteomas were readmitted. The mean follow-up was 54 months in this group. In 46 of 89 patients, an increase in the size check details of osteomas was detected. The mean growth rate of osteomas was estimated to be 0.79 mm/y in the cephalocaudal direction and 0.99 mm/y in the mediolateral direction. No significant differences were found in the growth

rate according to location and growth directions.\n\nConclusion. Neither a specific growth pattern nor a specific factor affecting the growth rate of these tumors could be demonstrated. Follow-up is necessary because of the potential severe complications.”
“Activated carbon supported manganese oxides (Mn/AC) were prepared by a conventional wet impregnation method using manganese nitrate as the precursor. The nature

of supported manganese oxides, e.g., dispersion, oxidation state, local coordination, was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron spin resonance (ESR), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies, and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H(2)-TPR). Manganese loading and pretreatment temperature were found to be vital factors in controlling the dispersion and chemical environment of supported manganese oxides. Highly dispersed manganese oxides can be obtained with a Mn loading up to ca. 5 wt.% under modest pretreatment temperatures, whereas large amount of Mn resulted in aggregated

MnO(x) Selleckchem eFT-508 crystalline clusters. The highly dispersed manganese oxides, uniformly distributed on activated carbon surface mainly as coexistence of Mn(2+) and Mn(3+), have been demonstrated to be catalytically active in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol using molecular oxygen. Benzyl alcohol conversion as high as 42.5% and over 99% benzaldehyde selectivity can be achieved within 4 h under low reaction temperature learn more (373 K). (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The treatment of patients with invasive breast cancer remains a major issue because of the acquisition of drug resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Here we propose a new therapeutic strategy by combining DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DMTIs) with suramin. Cytotoxic effects of suramin or combination treatment with DMTIs were determined in highly invasive breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, BT-20 and HCC1954, or control cells. In addition, effects on cell invasion were determined in 3-dimensional cell culture assays. DMTI-mediated upregulation of Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) expression was shown by Western blotting. Effects of suramin on PKD1 activity was determined in vitro and in cells. The importance of PKD1 in mediating the effects of such combination treatment in cell invasion was demonstrated using 3D cell culture assays. A proof of principal animal experiment was performed showing that PKD1 is critical for breast cancer growth.

“Ovarian cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed ma

“Ovarian cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy of the reproductive system and is the leading cause of gynecological cancer mortality. Although the majority of advanced ovarian carcinomas initially respond successfully to taxane-based chemotherapy, resistance to chemotherapy remains the primary factor accounting for the low 5-year survival in this patient population. Recent data obtained by our group demonstrate that the disulphide isomerase ERp57

is strongly modulated in paclitaxel resistance suggesting that it may represent a Compound C chemoresistance biomarker in ovarian cancer. In the present study, we characterise a nuclear multimeric complex where ERp57 is associated with protein species involved in cell division and gene expression, as Nucleolin, Nucleophosmin, Vimentin, Aurora kinase C and beta-actin. In particular, we show that the occurrence of the interaction of nuclear ERp57 with beta-actin is associated with paclitaxel resistance and that specific actin conformations modulate this complex. We propose the involvement of the nuclear ERp57 complex in mechanisms associated with chromosome segregation in which specific conformational states of actin play a role in the pathway involved

in paclitaxel resistance.”
“Boron doped diamond (BDD) thin film was found to exhibit higher photocurrent GSK690693 order conversion efficiencies and photostability compared to commonly used transparent conducting oxides (ITO and FTO) owing to the matching energy levels and strong C-C bonding at the organic/diamond interface.”
“In the course of cirrhosis, a variety of disturbances of endocrine glands occur. Degenerative changes in the testes

with atrophia and fibrosis of the glandular tissue are often found in men. Twenty-one males with compensated alcoholic liver cirrhosis were studied. The age ranged from 29 to 61 years (mean 47,1). Efficiency of the liver was evaluated according to Child classification. HBC (this needs to be spelled out in parenthesis) or HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) infections were Smad inhibitor excluded. Levels of serum testosterone were determined and the volume size of the testes was measured using 7,5 MHz sector probe, B&K Medical ultrasonograph, 3535 model. Volume size of the testes was measured in 22 healthy control volunteers, as well; age ranged from 25 to 66 years (mean-46,6). All patients were interviewed about sexual function, particularly possible erectile dysfunction using IIEF-5 questionnaire. The mean testosterone level was 8,89 umol/l (ranged: 7,4-10,9 umol/l) in the study patients [the normal range interval: 8,2-34,6 umol/l]. The level was below the normal range in 4 patients, and low but within the normal range in the remaining patients.