g. life expectancy, implant design, spacers and external stabilisation). This article further analyses the current literature available for these cases and summarises outcome after treatment of periprosthetic infections.”
“The tissue-resident macrophages of barrier organs constitute the first line of defence against pathogens at the systemic interface with the ambient environment. In the lung, resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a sentinel function against EPZ5676 nmr inhaled pathogens(1). Bacterial constituents ligate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on AMs(2), causing AMs to secrete proinflammatory cytokines(3) that activate alveolar epithelial receptors(4), leading to recruitment of neutrophils that
engulf pathogens(5,6). Because the AM-induced response could itself cause tissue injury, it is unclear how AMs modulate the response to prevent injury. Here, using real-time alveolar imaging in situ, we show that a subset of AMs attached to the alveolar wall form connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junction channels with the epithelium. During lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the AMs remained sessile and attached to the alveoli, and they established intercommunication through synchronized Ca2+ waves, using the epithelium as the conducting pathway. The intercommunication was immunosuppressive, involving Ca2+-dependent activation of Akt,
because AM-specific knockout of Cx43 enhanced alveolar Crenolanib neutrophil recruitment and secretion PRT062607 solubility dmso of proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage. A picture emerges of a novel immunomodulatory process in which a subset of alveolus-attached AMs intercommunicates immunosuppressive signals to reduce endotoxin-induced lung inflammation.”
“Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered to be a promising method for treating various types of cancer. A homogeneous and reproducible illumination during clinical PDT plays
a determinant rote in preventing under- or over-treatment. The development of flexible light sources would considerably improve the homogeneity of light delivery. The integration of optical fiber into flexible structures could offer an interesting alternative. This paper aims to describe different methods proposed to develop Side Emitting Optical Fibers (SEOF), and how these SEOF can be integrated in a flexible structure to improve light illumination of the skin during PDT. Four main techniques can be described: (i) light blanket integrating side-glowing optical fibers, (ii) light emitting panel composed of SEOF obtained by micro-perforations of the cladding, (iii) embroidery-based light emitting fabric, and (iv) woven-based light emitting fabric. Woven-based light emitting fabrics give the best performances: higher fluence rate, best homogeneity of light delivery, good flexibility. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective This study presents occupational peak and average exposures to nitrous oxide in delivery suites in six Swedish hospitals and evaluates different scavenging techniques.