Patients were followed postoperatively for evidence and duration<

Patients were followed postoperatively for evidence and duration

of success, and treatment related complications.

Results: From January 2006 to June 2007, 18 females and 3 males with a mean age of 81.2 years (range 75 to 92) in whom Selleck Foretinib detrusor overactivity was confirmed on urodynamics and who were refractory to or intolerant of antimuscarinics were treated with intravesical botulinum toxin A. Preoperatively the mean +/- SD number of daily voids was 11.4 +/- 1.67 and the mean number of pads per day was 4.0 +/- 0.89. One month after treatment 16 of the 21 patients (76%) reported greater than 50% improvement in symptoms after 1 injection. Specifically there was a significant improvement in the mean number of voids per day (5.19 +/- 0.83, p<0.001) and in the number of pads used daily (1.3 +/- 0.60, p<0.001). Two of the remaining 5 patients demonstrated greater than 50% improvement following repeat injection, while 3 did not show improvement selleck inhibitor after 2 injections. Mean time to deterioration was 7.12 months. There were no treatment related complications.

Conclusions: Intravesical botulinum toxin A for detrusor overactivity in the elderly population appears to be efficacious and durable. Given its low incidence of adverse events, it should be considered a viable treatment

option in this population.”
“Ligands for the epidermal growth factor receptor ErbB1, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and Branched chain aminotransferase transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), negatively regulate synaptic maturation of GABAergic neurons in the developing neocortex. Here, we evaluated the effects of these ligands in vivo on developing inhibitory

neurons in the dentate gyrus. Hippocampal slices were prepared from postnatal mice repeatedly challenged with EGF or from transgenic mice overexpressing TGF alpha. We monitored paired pulse depression of field population spikes evoked by perforant path stimulation to estimate the strength of local inhibition. Administration of EGF increased the paired pulse ratio, suggesting a reduction of inhibitory strength. A similar reduction was observed in TGF alpha transgenic mice. Monitoring miniature and evoked synaptic currents, we estimated EGF effects on synaptic input and output of GABAergic neurons. EGF treatment diminished the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the GABAergic neurons without affecting their miniature EPSCs. EGF also affected output strength of the GABAergic neurons: The frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and the evoked IPSC/evoked EPSC ratio were decreased in granule cells. In parallel, EGF down-regulated the protein level of vesicular GABA transporter. Thus, ErbB1 ligands influence GABAergic inhibitory synaptic transmission in the developing dentate gyrus. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

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