Our results show that while these mutations do not drastically af

Our results show that while these mutations do not drastically affect the structure of the Efb-C/C3d recognition complex, selleck compound they have significant adverse effects on both the thermodynamic and kinetic profiles of the resulting complexes. We also characterized other key interactions along the Efb-C/C3d binding interface and found an intricate network of salt bridges and

hydrogen bonds that anchor Efb-C to C3d, resulting in its potent complement inhibitory properties.”
“Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factor associations for subclavian artery calcification.

Background: Arterial calcification is a marker of atherosclerosis, and its presence portends an adverse prognostic risk. The prevalence click here and associated risk factors

for aortic arch, carotid, renal, and coronary calcification have been well described. Fewer data are available for subclavian artery calcification.

Methods: Electron-beam computed tomography was used to evaluate the extent of vascular calcification in multiple arterial beds in 1387 consecutive individuals who presented for preventive medicine services at a university-affiliated disease prevention center. Laboratory values for blood pressure, lipids, anthropomorphic data, and self-reported medical history were obtained.

Results: Subclavian artery calcification was present in 439 of 1387 individuals (31.7%). Those with subclavian artery calcification were significantly older, had a smaller body mass index, and were more likely to also have calcification of nonsubclavian vascular beds. When adjusted for

cardiovascular disease risk factors, the presence of subclavian artery calcification was significantly associated with age Dimethyl sulfoxide (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.04; P < .001), hypertension (PR, 1.20; P = .01), history of smoking (PR, 1.21; P = .01), and calcification in nonsubclavian vascular beds (PR, 1.58; P = .01). Subclavian artery calcification was also associated with an increased pulse pressure (beta-coefficient = 2.2, P = .008).

Conclusions: Subclavian artery calcification is relatively common and is significantly associated with age, smoking, hypertension, and nonsubclavian vascular calcification. There may be a relationship between vascular stiffness, as manifested by a widened pulse pressure, and the presence of subclavian artery calcification. (J Vase Surg 2011;54:1408-13.)”
“Animal experimentation in the Parkinson’s disease (PD) field is a classic example of how the use of animal models to study diseases can have a significant impact on human health. Among the different neurotoxin-based animal models of PD that are presently available, the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) models have been established and validated as useful models for the development of therapeutic strategies aimed to treat motor symptoms and to study alterations of the basal ganglia that occur in this disease.

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