In fact, one study also showed that adding β-alanine supplementat

In fact, one study also showed that adding β-alanine supplementation with creatine improves performance over

creatine alone [428]. While it appears that β-alanine supplementation can decrease fatigue rate, raise carnosine levels, and improve performance all of the research is not as favorable. There are other studies that show no performance benefits [425, 429] Possibly Effective Post-Exercise Carbohydrate and Protein Ingesting carbohydrate and protein following exercise enhances carbohydrate storage and protein synthesis. Theoretically, ingesting carbohydrate and protein following exercise may lead to greater training AZD6244 in vitro adaptations. In support of this theory, Esmarck and coworkers [107] found that ingesting carbohydrate and protein immediately following exercise doubled training adaptations in comparison to waiting until 2-hours to ingest

carbohydrate and protein. Additionally, Tarnopolsky and associates [430] Forskolin cost reported that post-exercise ingestion of carbohydrate with protein promoted as much strength gains as ingesting creatine with carbohydrate during training. A recent study by Kreider and colleagues [431] found that protein and carbohydrate supplementation post workout was capable of positively supporting the post exercise anabolic response. In the last few years many studies have agreed with these findings in that post workout supplementation is vital to recovery and training adaptations [13, 104, 431–433]. These findings underscore the importance of post-exercise carbohydrate and protein ingestion to support muscle anabolism and strength. Ergoloid However, it is still unclear if there are direct implications of protein/carbohydrate supplementation on other markers of performance such as time to exhaustion, maximal oxygen uptake, and/or skill development. Essential Amino Acids (EAA) Ingestion of 3-6 grams of EAA following resistance exercise has been shown to increase protein synthesis [92, 93, 98–102, 105,

434]. Theoretically, ingestion of EAA after exercise should enhance gains in strength and muscle mass during training. While there is sound theoretical rationale, it is currently unclear whether following this strategy would lead to greater training adaptations and/or whether EAA supplementation would be better than simply ingesting carbohydrate and a quality protein following exercise. Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) Ingestion of BCAA (e.g., 6-10 grams per hour) with sports drinks during prolonged exercise would theoretically improve psychological perception of fatigue (i.e., central fatigue). Although there is strong rationale, the effects of BCAA supplementation on exercise performance is mixed with some studies suggesting an improvement and others showing no effect [33]. More research is needed before conclusions can be drawn.

Panel B shows the isobologram result of drug combination between

Panel B shows the isobologram result of drug combination between ATRA and imatinib. This combination resulted in additive effect. Cytotoxic effect of combination with ATRA and imatinib The result of isobologram was showed in Figure 5B. All data points in the combination fell within the envelope of additivity, the area surrounded by the three lines, suggesting that this combination gave additive effect. Discussion ATRA have been reported to show therapeutic Akt inhibitor effect on breast and ovarian cancers and

APL [28]. However, for the first time we have demonstrated that ATRA suppressed the cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in GIST-T1 cells, suggesting anti-cancer effect of ATRA on GISTs. The cell death inducing mechanism by ATRA in cancers has not yet been

fully clarified. In this report we have shown that apoptosis induced by ATRA in GIST-T1 cells are regulated at least by the down-regulation of survivin and up-regulation of Bax (Figure 3A and 3B). Even though XIAP and survivin belong to the same family of apoptotic inhibitors, it is likely that ATRA effected quite differently on expression of XIAP and survivin. Survivin was suppressed in a time dependent manner whereas XIAP was not suppressed by ATRA treatment (Figure 3C). It is likely that survivin may be a target molecule that plays an important role in ATRA-induced apoptosis in GIST-T1 cells. Further studies are definitely necessary for better understanding of the apoptosis-inducing mechanism by ATRA in GIST-T1 cells. GISTs can be successfully treated with imatinib with the response rate of up to 85% [15, 29, 30]. However, after a median of 2 years of treatment with imatinib, resistance can develop [15]. The effect of imatinib is mainly due to the suppression of KIT activity. In this study, we found that the suppression of KIT activity (Figure 4A) was also obtained by ATRA treatment. Moreover, we have demonstrated else that combination of ATRA and

imatinib showed additive effect (Figure 5B) by isobologram, suggesting that the combination of ATRA and imatinib would be a novel therapeutic potential for GISTs. The scratch assay result (Figure 5A) also suggested the useful of ATRA to prevent the invasion or metastasis of GIST cells. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that ATRA had an ability to inhibit the cell proliferation and migration, inducing apoptosis in GIST-T1 cells. Thus ATRA can have a potential for novel therapeutic agent for GISTs. Since the combination of ATRA and imatinib showed additive effect on GIST-T1 cells, ATRA may be used in combination with imatinib for GISTs treatment. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Japan Foundation for Promotion of International Medical Research Co-operation (JF-PIMRC). References 1. Kindblom LG, Remotti HE, Aldenborg F, Meis-Kindblom JM: Gastrointestinal pacemaker cell tumor (GIPACT): gastrointestinal stromal tumors show phenotypic characteristics of the interstitial cells of Cajal.

J Bacteriol 1989, 171:3961–3967 PubMed 40 Djordjevic SP, Ridge R

J Bacteriol 1989, 171:3961–3967.PubMed 40. Djordjevic SP, Ridge RW, Chen HC, Redmond JW, Batley M, Rolfe BG: Induction of pathogenic-like responses in the legume Macroptilium atropurpureum by a transposon-induced mutant of the fast-growing, broad-host-range Rhizobium strain NGR234. J Bacteriol 1988, 170:1848–1857.PubMed 41. Newman JD, Diebold RJ, Schultz BW, Noel KD: Infection of soybean and pea nodules by Rhizobium spp. purine auxotrophs in the presence of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide

riboside. J Bacteriol 1994, 176:3286–3294.PubMed 42. Noel KD, Diebold RJ, Cava JR, Brink BA: Rhizobial purine and pyrimidine auxotrophs: Nutrient supplementation, genetic analysis, and the symbiotic requirement for the novo purine biosynthesis. Arch Microbiol 1988, 149:499–506.CrossRef 43. Danielli A, Roncarati D, Delany I, Chiarini V, Rappuoli R, Scarlato V: In vivo dissection of the Helicobacter pylori Fur regulatory circuit by LY2835219 manufacturer genome-wide location analysis. J Bacteriol 2006, 188:4654–4662.PubMedCrossRef 44. Foreman DL, Vanderlinde EM, Bay DC, Yost CK: Characterization of a gene family of outer membrane proteins ( ropB ) in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv.

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Organisms of (+) mating type have the MAT1-1 idiomorph of the mat

Organisms of (+) mating type have the MAT1-1 idiomorph of the mating locus, while organisms of (-) mating type have the MAT1-2 idiomorph of the mating locus [2]. The fungus is pathogenic, and organisms of (-) mating type may be associated with increased virulence. The organism causes acute pulmonary disease when inhaled into the lung [3–5]. Individuals may also develop the disseminated form of the disease, which is usually controlled by activation of cell-mediated immunity in immune-competent individuals [4, 6]. Organisms of (-) mating type are found more frequently in samples from patients with pulmonary

histoplasmosis; however, organisms of both mating types are represented equally in samples from patients with severe disseminated histoplasmosis and in environmental samples [7, 8]. It is unknown whether

the (-) mating type strain predominates VX-770 nmr in clinical samples due to host factors, or differences between organisms of opposite mating type. A single study examining virulence of (+) and (-) mating type strains has been reported; however, interpretation is limited by the inability to compare congenic strains of H. capsulatum [9]. Mating occurs under appropriate conditions in the mycelial phase when hyphae arising from organisms of opposite mating type appose and generate a complex structure comprising of a net of short branching hyphae covered with coiled surface hyphae. Within this specialized Ceritinib mw closed structure, the cleistothecium, cytoplasmic and nuclear fusion occur followed by successive rounds of meiosis and mitosis generating sac-like asci containing 8 ascospores, the end-product of sexual replication. Generation of congenic strains in H. capsulatum is challenging due to the low frequency of homologous gene targeting in the organism [10], and because the organism rapidly loses mating ability in culture [7]. This limits the feasibility of gene replacement or backcrossing as methods for generating congenic strains. If the loss of mating competency could be overcome in

laboratory strains of H. capsulatum, a variety of classical genetics techniques could be developed for use in this organism, including congenic strain construction. Understanding Vorinostat in vivo the molecular mechanisms that regulate mating could lead to the restoration of mating ability in laboratory strains of H. capsulatum. Through this work, we generated a strain of H. capsulatum that can be used to examine molecular correlates of mating. Regulation of mating in fungi requires integration of multiple pathways in a complex developmental program. The pheromone response MAP kinase pathway is a central pathway in the mating response of many fungi [11]. In the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this pathway allows yeasts to sense a mating partner, and coordinates appropriate responses such as G1 arrest [12, 13].

PubMed 36 Chen P, Wiencke J, Aldape K, Kesler-Diaz A, Miike R, K

PubMed 36. Chen P, Wiencke J, Aldape K, Kesler-Diaz A, Miike R, Kelsey K, Lee M, Liu J, Wrensch M: Association of an ERCC1 BMS-777607 in vitro polymorphism with adult-onset glioma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000, 9: 843–847.PubMed

37. Goode EL, Ulrich CM, Potter JD: Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and associations with cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002, 11: 1513–1530.PubMed 38. Hou SM, Falt S, Angelini S, Yang K, Nyberg F, Lambert B, Hemminki K: The XPD variant alleles are associated with increased aromatic DNA adduct level and lung cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 2002, 23: 599–603.CrossRefPubMed 39. Justenhoven C, Hamann U, Pesch B, Harth V, Rabstein S, Baisch C, Vollmert C, Illig T, Ko YD, Bruning T, Brauch H: ERCC2 genotypes and a corresponding haplotype are linked with breast cancer Everolimus nmr risk in a German population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004, 13: 2059–2064.PubMed 40. Liang G, Xing D, Miao X, Tan W, Yu C, Lu W, Lin D: Sequence variations in the DNA repair gene XPD and risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. Int J Cancer 2003, 105: 669–673.CrossRefPubMed 41. Mort R, Mo L, McEwan C, Melton DW: Lack of involvement of nucleotide excision repair gene polymorphisms in colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 2003, 89: 333–337.CrossRefPubMed 42. Sancar A, Tang MS: Nucleotide excision repair. Photochem Photobiol 1993, 57: 905–921.CrossRefPubMed

43. Sobti RC, Singh J, Kaur P, Pachouri SS, Siddiqui EA, Bindra HS: XRCC1 codon 399 and ERCC2 codon

751 polymorphism, smoking, and drinking and risk of Reverse transcriptase esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a North Indian population. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2007, 175: 91–97.CrossRefPubMed 44. Sturgis EM, Zheng R, Li L, Castillo EJ, Eicher SA, Chen M, Strom SS, Spitz MR, Wei Q: XPD/ERCC2 polymorphisms and risk of head and neck cancer: a case-control analysis. Carcinogenesis 2000, 21: 2219–2223.CrossRefPubMed 45. Tang D, Cho S, Rundle A, Chen S, Phillips D, Zhou J, Hsu Y, Schnabel F, Estabrook A, Perera FP: Polymorphisms in the DNA repair enzyme XPD are associated with increased levels of PAH-DNA adducts in a case-control study of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2002, 75: 159–166.CrossRefPubMed 46. Wrensch M, Kelsey KT, Liu M, Miike R, Moghadassi M, Sison JD, Aldape K, McMillan A, Wiemels J, Wiencke JK: ERCC1 and ERCC2 polymorphisms and adult glioma. Neuro Oncol 2005, 7: 495–507.CrossRefPubMed 47. Xing D, Qi J, Miao X, Lu W, Tan W, Lin D: Polymorphisms of DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XPD and their associations with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Chinese population. Int J Cancer 2002, 100: 600–605.CrossRefPubMed 48. Xing D, Tan W, Wei Q, Lin D: Polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XPD and risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. Lung Cancer 2002, 38: 123–129.CrossRefPubMed 49. Malhotra KC: Morphological composition of the people of India. J Hum Evol 1978, 7: 45–63.CrossRef 50. Gadgil M, Joshi NV, Prasad UV, Manoharan S, Patil S: In the Indian human heritage.

5 or

3 grams per day HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meal

5 or

3 grams per day HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK, LDH, 3-MH With HMB-Ca CK, LDH, and 3-MH all decreased in a dose dependent manner with 20–60 % declines in CK and LDH and 20 % declines in 3-MH, the marker of protein breakdown Jowko 2001 [10] Active, college-aged males Progressive Free Weights No 3 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca 20 grams creatine per day for 7 days followed by 10 grams per day for 14 days 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK and Urine and Plasma Urea 26-46 % decrease in serum and urine urea nitrogen with HMB-Ca and HMB-Ca lowered CK by 189 % Kreider 1999 [15] NCAA Football Players Instructed to not change current training Regimen SCH727965 No 28 days, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK No Effect Paddon-Jones 2001 [16] Untrained

college-aged males 1 isokinetic bout of exercise for elbow flexors No 6 days prior to bout, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK, Soreness, Arm girth, Strength No Effect Wilson 2009 [17] Untrained college-aged males 1 isokinetic, eccentric bout for knee extensors and flexors Yes 3 grams HMB-Ca No 60 minutes pre vs. Immediately post exercise CK, LDH, Soreness Pre Exercise HMB-Ca: Prevented the rise in LDH and tended to decrease soreness. Post exercise HMB-Ca, No effects suggesting a possible effect of dosage timing on outcomes. Kreider 2000 Ku-0059436 solubility dmso Vorinostat datasheet [18] NCAA Football Players Offseason Strength and Conditioning Program No 3 grams HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative

to training CK, LDH No Effect Knitter 2000 [11] Trained runners 20–50 yrs of age who ran a minimum of , 48 km per week 20 km run No 6 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK HMB-Ca decreased serum CK by approximately 50 % Hoffman 2004 [19] NCAA Football players Football camp No 10 days, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK, soreness No Effect Panton et al. 2000 [20] Men and women, divided into untrained and resistance trained (> 6 months), 20–40 yrs of age Monitored 4 wk high intensity progressive resistance training No 4 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK CK increased 16 and 46 % in men and women, respectively, in the placebo group. In the HMB group CK increased by 3 % and decreased by 12 % in men and women, respectively Van Someran 2005 [21] Untrained college-aged males Eccentric bout of free weight exercise for elbow flexors No 14 days, 3 grams per day 0.

al , discussing various nonclassical properties in connection wit

al., discussing various nonclassical properties in connection with quantum number distribution, purity, quadrature squeezing, W-function, etc. [21]. Methods and results Simplification via unitary transformation Let us consider two loops of RLC circuit, whose elements are nanosized, that are coupled with each other via inductance and resistance as shown in Figure selleck inhibitor 1. Using Kirchhoff’s law, we obtain the classical equations of motion for charges of the system [4]: (1) Figure 1 Electronic

circuit. This is the diagram of a two-dimensional electronic circuit composed of nanoscale elements. (2) where q j (j=1,2; hereafter, this convention will be used for all j) are charges stored in the capacitances C j , respectively, and is an arbitrary time-varying voltage source connected in loop 1. If we consider not only the existence of but also the mixed appearance of q 1 and q 2 in these two equations, it may be not an easy task to treat the system directly. If the scale of resistances are sufficiently large, the system is described by an overdamped harmonic oscillator, whereas

the system becomes an underdamped harmonic oscillator in the case of small resistances. In this paper, we consider only the underdamped see more case. For convenience, we suppose that R 0/L 0=R 1/L 1=R 2/L 2≡β. Then, the classical Hamiltonian of the system can be written as (3) where p j are canonical currents of the system, and k j =(1/L j )(1/L 0+1/L 1+1/L 2)−1/2. From Hamilton’s equations, we can easily see that p j are given by (4) (5) If we replace classical variables q j and p j in Equation 3 with their corresponding operators, and , the classical Hamiltonian becomes quantum 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl Hamiltonian: (6) where . Now, we are going to transform into a simple form using the unitary transformation method, developed in [6] for a two-loop LC circuit, in

order to simplify the problem. Let us first introduce a unitary operator (7) where (8) (9) with (10) Using Equation 7, we can transform the Hamiltonian such that (11) A straightforward algebra after inserting Equation 6 into the above equation gives (12) where (13) with (14) (15) One can see from Equation 13 that the coupled term involving in the original Hamiltonian is decoupled through this transformation. However, the Hamiltonian still contains linear terms that are expressed in terms of , which are hard to handle when developing a quantum theory of the system. To remove these terms, we introduce another unitary operator of the form (16) (17) (18) where q j p (t) and p j p (t) are classical particular solutions of the firstly transformed system described by in the charge and the current spaces, respectively.

The load during the test was 7 5% of the volunteer’s body mass P

The load during the test was 7.5% of the volunteer’s body mass. Participants were instructed to remain seated throughout the test. The electromyographic activity of each muscle was examined between the second and eighth seconds of each maximum bout, and the highest peak amplitude found, expressed in root mean square (RMS), was used as the normalization factor. Electromyographic activity was monitored continuously during the tests in both experimental conditions (CAF or PLA) using an eight-channel electromyograph (TeleMyo 2400 T G2 – Noraxon Inc., USA). The sampling frequency for EMG records was 2000 Hz and the factor of common-mode rejection Barasertib cell line ratio was greater than 95 dB. The muscles examined selleck products were the

superficial quadriceps femoris (QF), RF, VM and VL. The signal was recorded following the recommendations by ISEK. After site preparation by shaving,

cleansing with alcohol and curettage to reduce skin impedance, active electrodes (TeleMyo 2400 – Noraxon Inc., USA) were fixed to the skin, with inter-electrode distance (center to center) of two centimeters. The reference electrode was positioned over the iliac crest. The location of the anatomical landmarks for electrode placement followed the standardization proposed by SENIAM [19]. Analysis and processing of the EMG signal RMS (μV) values were averaged for each 30-s period and were used for the analysis of electromyographic signals from RF, VM, and VL muscles and the integrated

QF [(RF + VM + VL) / 3]. Data were processed using a mathematical simulation environment (Matlab 7.0 – MathWorks ®, South Natick, MA, USA). To obtain the values expressed in RMS, raw EMG signals were digitally filtered, using a band-pass filter of 20Hz and 500Hz, according to the procedures proposed by Dantas et al. [20]. Measurement of perceived exertion All subjects were instructed to report their perceived exertion according to the 6–20 point Borg scale [21] at each 2 km of exercise. From these data, we determined the intercept on the y axis (y-intercept), the Carbachol coefficient of determination (R2) and the slope between the time and the individual perceived exertion values attributed during each test obtained by linear regression analysis. Psychological-motivational changes On test days, subjects responded to the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) when they arrived and after the experimental trial. This questionnaire was used for the detection of mood based on 24 questions, stratified into six areas, namely: confusion, anger, depression, fatigue, tension and vigor. Each domain score was normalized by the score obtained prior to the exercise by subtracting the scores at the end of the trial from the scores before the trial. Heart rate During all testing protocols HR was monitored and recorded in RR intervals (ms) and beats per minute (bpm), using a heart rate monitor (Polar RS800CX – Polar®, Kempele, Finland).

Arch Surg 2006,141(5):451–8 CrossRefPubMed 6 Moore EE, Cogbill T

Arch Surg 2006,141(5):451–8.CrossRefPubMed 6. Moore EE, Cogbill TH, Jurkovich GJ, Shackford SR, Malangoni MA, Champion HR: Organ injury scaling: spleen and liver (1994 revision). J Trauma 1995,38(3):323–4.CrossRefPubMed 7. Kozar RA, Moore JB, Niles SE,

Holcomb JB, Moore EE, Cothren CC, Hartwell E, Moore FA: Complications of nonoperative management of high-grade blunt hepatic injuries. J Trauma 2005,59(5):1066–71.CrossRefPubMed 8. Letoublon C, Chen Y, Arvieux C, Voirin D, Morra I, Broux C, BGB324 molecular weight Risse O: Delayed celiotomy or laparoscopy as part of the nonoperative management of blunt hepatic trauma. World J Surg 2008,32(6):1189–93.CrossRefPubMed 9. Berrevoet F, de Hemptinne B: Use of topical hemostatic agents during liver resection. Dig Surg 2007,24(4):288–93.CrossRefPubMed 10. Anegg U, Lindenmann J, Matzi V, Smolle J, Maier A, Smolle-Jüttner F: Efficiency of fleece-bound sealing (TachoSil) of air leaks in lung surgery: a prospective randomised trial. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2007,31(2):198–202.CrossRefPubMed 11. Toti L, Manzia TM, Lenci I, Attia M, Buckels JAC, Mayer AD, Mirza DF, Bramshall SR, Wigmore SJ: Bile

leaks reduction after adult split liver transplantation using a Luminespib concentration haemostatic sponge (TachoSil ® ). HPB 2008,10(Suppl 1):78. 12. Frena A, Martin F: How to improve bilio-stasis in liver surgery. Chir Ital 2006,58(6):793–5.PubMed Competing

interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions Conception and design: ER, PP. Collection and assembly of data: EM, EO, OC. Data analysis and interpretation: EM, EO, OC. Manuscript writing: EM, ER. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Introduction In the medical practice, the different scenarios in which cardiorespiratory resuscitation (CPR) may be applied must be taken into account. CPR is crucial in patients that arrive in emergency rooms or suffer a cardiac arrest in public places or in their homes. It is also critical DOCK10 in hospitalized patients with potentially reversible diseases, who suffer cardiac arrest as an unexpected event during their evolution [1]. The latest guidelines for CPR and emergency cardiovascular care published by the American Heart Association include substantial changes to the algorithms for basic life support and advanced cardiovascular life support [2]. The most critical emergency situation seen in cardiac surgical units is the need for chest reopening. While senior nurses often manage cardiac arrest they currently are not trained to open chests, which can be a life-saving action if performed efficiently [3]. The ability to respond quickly and effectively to a cardiac arrest situation rests on nurses being competent in the emergency life-saving procedure of CPR.

SP conceived the low temperature deposition of SiNWs idea and the

SP conceived the low temperature deposition of SiNWs idea and their exploitation into devices. He supervised the work and reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Electrochemical anodizing of bulk crystalline silicon (Si) at specific conditions causes the formation of chaotic or ordered pore channels in its volume [1]. The material formed by such artificial nanostructuring is called porous

silicon (PS). This porous morphological type of silicon presents an object of great interest of the scientific community because, in contrast to the bulk silicon, it demonstrates a number of peculiarities such as extremely developed surface, photo- and electroluminescence, and biocompatibility. Possession of these properties makes PS applicable to the areas Kinase Inhibitor Library of optoelectronics and display technologies, micromechanical systems, biomedicine, etc. The challenge to develop and engineer novel devices and technologies based on PS forces researchers to actively seek methods to control and manage the PS properties. One way to realize it is the incorporation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) into the pores of PS by deposition from wet solutions. Unlike dry methods (evaporation or sputtering), wet deposition provides deep penetration of metal atoms into pore channels [2]. Moreover, wet Atezolizumab mouse technologies are characterized by simplicity and low cost. Immersion deposition presents a less

complicated wet method of PS metallization. In contrast to electrochemical and chemical depositions, in this process, a source of the electrons for metal atoms reduction is PS itself. In aqueous solutions, the ions of metals,

which have redox potential greater than hydrogen, attract electrons from Si atoms and are reduced to the atomic form [3]. The immersion deposition of other metals can be carried out by the use of alkaline solutions [4]. During wet deposition, metal structures tend to grow as island films according to 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase the Volmer-Weber mechanism [5]. Penetration of metals into PS may be easily controlled by the alternation of PS porosity [6]. Therefore, it is possible to fabricate metal films on the outer surface of PS or metal/PS nanocomposites (NCs). Obviously, during the immersion process, the Si skeleton of PS is oxidized, and SiO2 is formed under deposited metal structures [3, 7]. The oxide’s interlayer prevents further redox reactions between Si and metal ions, and as a result, there reduction of metal stops. Usually, to avoid the effect of oxidation, immersion deposition in the presence of fluoride species is performed [8, 9]. In this case, SiO2 removal followed by Si oxidation caused the dissolution of the PS skeleton. Proper conditions of the metal immersion deposition and PS parameters can lead to the complete conversion of PS to porous metal [10]. The structures formed by immersion deposition of metals on PS are widely studied to be successfully applied in some technologically important areas [11–15].