Blocking IDO reduced the immunosuppressive effect of cytokine-treated ASC to levels found in control ASC, but did not abolish the immunosuppressive capacity completely. This shows that IDO is important for the induced immunosuppressive capacity
of ASC treated with cytokines, but less so for the basic immunosuppressive capacity of ASC. As a consequence, other factors must play a role in the immunosuppressive function of ASC, of which several have been reported in the literature, such as HGF, HLA-G and nitric oxide (NO) [5,19,20]. We found high expression of Apoptosis inhibitor HLA-G, TGF-β1 and COX-2, which have been reported to be involved in the immunosuppressive effect of ASC [5,18,19]. In MLR-cultured ASC we found strong up-regulation of COX-2, which could indicate that prostaglandin E2 is responsible for some of the enhanced immunosuppressive capacity selleck compound of these cells. Culture under inflammatory conditions not only changed the expression of anti-inflammatory factors by ASC, but also
increased the expression of HLA class I. The expression of HLA class II was increased predominantly by proinflammatory cytokines, whereas culture of ASC with MLR had less effect. Up-regulation of HLA makes ASC potentially more immunogenic. This could have consequences for clinical application of ASC of allogeneic origin. Inflammatory conditions also increased the expression of proinflammatory factors and chemokines. The type of proinflammatory factors and chemokines produced by ASC depended upon the inflammatory condition. Whereas ASC cultured with MLR showed up-regulation of chemokines for neutrophils,
monocytes and macrophages, in particular, culture of ASC with proinflammatory cytokines resulted in the up-regulation of chemokines for T lymphocytes. The relevance of the chemoattraction of the different immune cells by ASC is not clear, but could lead to binding of activated immune cells to ASC . Close contact of activate selleck inhibitor immune cells and ASC may increase the efficacy of the immunomodulatory function of ASC [20,35]. These results indicate that ASC can exhibit diverse immunomodulatory effects. The local inflammatory milieu is of crucial importance for the balance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of ASC. Furthermore, it determines the mechanisms that ASC employ to execute their immunomodulatory function. Apart from their immunomodulatory properties, ASC have potential to support tissue regeneration. While this is mediated partially via their differentiation in other cell types , there is now increasing evidence that the regenerative effect of ASC is also the result of the production of trophic factors, which stimulate resident progenitor cells . Under inflammatory conditions, ASC maintained the capacity to differentiate in adipogenic and osteogenic lineages.