Computed tomography detected responses in pancreatic cancer are s

Computed tomography detected responses in pancreatic cancer are slow and infrequent after chemoradiation [2], [3] and [4] and underestimate the effectiveness of neoadjuvant therapy in patients with resectable disease [5] and [6]. In our prior series of 74 patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer treated with gemcitabine and radiotherapy, 11 patients (15%) achieved a CT detected partial response by RECIST, and no one achieved a complete response [4]. Additionally, the median time to CT detected partial response was 4.5 months from the start of radiation

(range 1.6-19.1 months). This timing would not be useful for making clinical decisions. Histopathologically, pancreatic cancer is characterized by a prominent desmoplastic reaction [7]. This large amount of connective tissue would not be expected to regress after therapy and likely contributes to the frequent misinterpretation of scans. Diffusion-weighted selleck products MRI (dMRI) has the potential to overcome selleck chemicals llc the weaknesses of CT imaging in patients with pancreatic cancer. Diffusion-weighted imaging is a pulse sequence (utilizing Echo Planar imaging or EPI sequence) that can measure the mobility of water molecules within tissue at the cellular level [8]. The diffusion of water in

tissue can be expressed as the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) which reflects overall diffusivity, and is dependent on many factors, including water mobility in intra- and extracellular spaces,

the relative volume of these spaces, cellular membrane integrity, macromolecular components and permeability [9]. ADC values have been correlated with tumor cellularity in patients [10]. Low ADC values are observed in dense and fibrotic tumors due to increased tissue cellularity and reduced extracellular volume. Conversely, high ADC values have been described within necrotic regions of tumors [11] and [12]. By distinguishing between necrotic and viable tumor, dMRI has the potential to detect and measure cellular changes that occur in response Linifanib (ABT-869) to successful therapies, such as chemoradiation. These changes would be expected to be detectable prior to macroscopic changes in mass, size or morphology since removal of tumor macromolecular debris occurs relatively slowly. In fact, clinical studies have shown that dMRI can predict tumor response often several months prior to detectable radiographic changes [13], [14], [15], [16], [17] and [18]. Therefore, we decided to study the effectiveness of dMRI to predict response in patients with pancreatic cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Patients with resectable pancreatic cancer planning to undergo neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy were eligible for this study. Patients had to have no contraindications to MRI, adequate renal function, and no prior history of radiation therapy to the abdomen. All participating subjects signed informed consent.

The institutional review board or ethics committee at each site a

The institutional review board or ethics committee at each site approved the study. The study was conducted in accordance with all country regulations,

the Declaration of Helsinki, and the International Conference on Harmonization Good Clinical Practice Guidelines. All subjects provided written informed consent prior to enrollment. Ultradistal radius images were acquired using Scanco HR-pQCT with an isotropic voxel size of 82 μm [16] and [17]. Cortical porosity was quantified at baseline, 6 and 12 months using StrAx1.0, a software able to automatically quantify the porosity within CAL101 the compact-appearing cortex and the outer and inner transitional zones of the cortex [18] and [19]. The outer transitional zone is trabecularized cortex adjacent to the compact-appearing cortex, while the inner transitional Epacadostat supplier zone is trabecularized cortex adjacent to the medullary cavity [19]. StrAx1.0 is available

as an online image analysis software ( The method is accurate in measuring dimensions (total cross-sectional area, areas of compact-appearing cortex, transitional zones, and trabecular compartments) and porosity. The regression between the gold standard micro-CT and StrAx1.0 measurements from HRpQCT has an R2 ranging from 0.87 to 0.99. The regression between selleck gold standard scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and StrAx1.0 measurements from HRpQCT images has an R2 ranging from 0.91 to 0.99 for areas and porosity. Reproducibility expressed as the root mean square of the coefficient variation (RMS CV%) for areas and porosity measurements ranges from 0.54 to 3.98% [18]. Porosity was quantified as the percent of the total compartment volume occupied by void. Details and validation of the method of quantification of porosity using StrAx1.0 are published [16], [18], [19], [20] and [21]. To avoid overestimating

porosity by including under-mineralized bone matrix, quantification of porosity is confined to voxels with attenuation values less than 80% of that produced by fully mineralized bone. Voxels with attenuation values greater than 80% of that produced by fully mineralized bone were excluded from the analysis because pores only produce attenuation below 80% of maximum [19]. Voxels producing attenuation within 80% of maximum contain matrix that has undergone incomplete secondary mineralization (primary mineralization reaches 80% of maximum within a few days of matrix deposition). Thus, there is little, if any confounding effect of mineralization. Because StrAx1.

For the best treatment of the bite of this snake, it was suggeste

For the best treatment of the bite of this snake, it was suggested that therapeutic should be associated with anti-crotalic horse antivenom. Later, experiments were conducted to confirm that the administration of both the anti-bothropic and anti-crotalic horse antivenom provided a more effective neutralization for the myotoxic, coagulant and/or lethal activities than one antivenom used alone ( de Roodt et al., 1999 and Queiroz

et al., 2008). This was not restricted only with bothropic-crotalic antivenom since it was recently observed for venom from Australian snake species ( O’Leary and Isbister, 2009). Other immunochemical studies using rabbit antibodies against a synthetic peptide (residues 1–15) of BthTX-I (Angulo et al., 2001) and an anti-NN-XIa-PLA2 from Naja naja venom ( Basavarajappa et al., 1993) showed that the enzymatic activity of these PLA2s was RG7422 ic50 inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by antibodies. However, the lethal and neurotoxic symptoms were not neutralized selleck compound in experimental animals ( Basavarajappa et al., 1993). Further studies have demonstrated cross-reactivity between BthTX-I and the crotoxin

of Crotalus durissus cascavella, but the common and specific antigenic determinants were not identified ( Oshima-Franco et al., 2001 and Beghini et al., 2007). Overall, the mechanisms associated with the capacity to neutralize myotoxic and anticoagulant activities of snake venoms remain unknown along with the observed protective synergic effects of combining therapeutic antivenom. In this study, we report the identification and structural characterization of the linear B-cell epitopes of the three PLA2s from B. jararacussu snake venom recognized by neutralizing anti-bothropic and anti-crotalic commercial horse antivenom. The results suggest that the best performance of the monovalent anti-crotalic antivenom to neutralize B. jararacussu PLA2s may be due to the recognition of different epitopes Adenosine triphosphate rather than cross-reactivity or other factors such as the affinity of the antibodies. Our observations reinforce the importance of defining the mechanisms leading to the

neutralization of the highly toxic proteins in venom by commercial antivenom to drive production of more protective treatments. Amino acids for peptide synthesis were from Calbiochem-Novabiochem Corp. (San Diego, CA, USA). Super SignalR West Pico chemiluminescent substrate was from Pierce Biotechnology (Rockford, IL, USA). Amino-PEG500-UC540 cellulose membranes were obtained from Intavis Bioanalytical Instruments (Koeln, Germany). Pyperidine, acetonitrile and trifluoracetic acid were from Fluke. A peroxidase-labeled rabbit anti-horse immunoglobulin serum was from KPL (Gaithersburg, MD, USA). Bovine serum albumin, 3,3,5,5′ tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and Tween 20 were obtained from Sigma–Aldrich Corp. (St. Louis, MO, USA). Amicon centricon 10 filters were from Millipore (Billerica, MD, USA).

Two authors (K -V C , C -Y H ) independently evaluated all articl

Two authors (K.-V.C., C.-Y.H.) independently evaluated all articles eligible for inclusion. The data extracted from the selected studies included patient characteristics, information on PRP administration, and details of outcome measurements. The Jadad scale was used to assess the quality of the randomized controlled trials. The aggregate scores ranged from 0 to 5 points. Trials with scores <3 were assumed to have a lower methodological quality.15 Prospective follow-up and quasi-experimental GSK126 studies were evaluated by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the quality of selection, comparability, exposure, and outcome. The maximum scores observed

were 9 points, and total scores <4 points were considered low in quality.16 Discrepancies between the 2 independent evaluations for potential articles were resolved through discussion and consensus. Data were extracted from 3 points at or closest to the 2nd, 6th, and 12th months

after the interventions. Effect sizes were estimated from functional knee joint scales and applied to compare the results across studies or between different therapeutic approaches. Ku0059436 If more than 1 functional scale was available for a study, we selected only 1 measurement according to the order of IKDC, KOOS, and then WOMAC. Since some studies had multiple treatment arms, we treated each arm as a separate data set for analysis. To evaluate the effectiveness of PRP treatment, compared with the pretreatment condition, tetracosactide we used the standardized mean difference between the

baseline and status after therapy. Data were derived from the ratio of the difference between baseline and posttreatment functional scores to the SD of the pooled results. Positive and negative values of the effect sizes indicated a functional improvement and decline, respectively. For cases in which the functional score SD was deficient, the value was computed from the P value of the corresponding hypothesis testing. The pooled SD resulted from the square root [(participant numbers in baseline − 1)*(SD of scores in baseline)2 + (participant numbers after treatment − 1)*(SD of scores after treatment)2]/[(participant numbers in baseline − 1) + (participant numbers after treatment − 1)]. 16 and 17 Because the pooled SD was calculated based on the rule of intention to treat, the dropout rate was not considered, and the participant numbers remained unchanged between the baseline and posttreatment data sets. The effect sizes were pooled by using a random-effect model and were represented by a point estimate with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Regarding the comparison with the baseline condition, an advantage of PRP referred to a positive summed effect size with a 95% CI above a zero value.

The spill scenarios developed for the revision of the


The spill scenarios developed for the revision of the

Management plan [27] predicted that on average even the worst-case scenario would have little adverse effects, but that there was a certain probability it could affect a large proportion of the yearclass of cod and especially herring. These effects would be further magnified if that occurred during a year with high recruitment, further diverging the worst possible outcome from the expected one. The experience from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in the Gulf of Alaska shows that long term effects are not only difficult to predict, but also challenging to determine even with the benefit of hindsight [50]. Before this oil spill, it was assumed that acute mortality was the key concern, but experience from this oil spill indicates an unexpected long-term effect on wildlife [51]. On the other hand, uncertainty still remains on whether the oil spill was the major Ganetespib in vitro cause of the herring stock collapses [49]. Present efforts of refining risk assessments have the potential to reduce some of the associated uncertainties. For example, including cod larvae’s diurnal migration pattern may offer new insight in potential overlaps between an oil slick and cod larvae. However, including more detailed information will introduce new layers of uncertainty: Is the model resolution

sufficiently fine to assess the exposure of larvae during their migration up and down the water column? What other factors determine survival of larvae to later life stages? There are several sources of uncertainty that make the associated uncertainty challenging to reduce: (i) Major oil spills are rare, and hence empirical knowledge is scarce. The conditions have rarely been the same from one blowout to another, and

almost oil tanker accidents and recent blowouts reveal unpredicted dispersal or phenomena that have not been observed before, for example the fate of an oil slick [52] and [53]. (ii) Ocean currents and other environmental conditions are influenced by stochastic processes and will affect the distribution of an oil slick, on fish stocks and other marine life in a non-predictive way [8]. (iii) Political, cultural, natural and technical conditions change and will always be unpredictable to some extent. Taken together, uncertainty will necessarily remain, both on the probability and the size of a worst-case scenario. The uncertainty is thus reducible only to some indeterminate extent. Concerning the presentation of risks, there is a structural issue on how the “worst case” is defined. The “worst case” could be related only to the size of the oil spill, but it could also be defined as the worst case in terms of fate, weather conditions, time of year, overlap with fish larvae, etc. As a result, the risk assessment for an equally large oil spill is driven by the choice of how that “worst case” is defined. A second issue relates to the low probability, high impact and nature of the risk.

W Stanach Zjednoczonych produkty spożywcze stanowią ponad połowę

W Stanach Zjednoczonych produkty spożywcze stanowią ponad połowę wszystkich produktów reklamowanych w telewizji w programach adresowanych do dzieci i młodzieży. Liczba ta wzrasta jeszcze w weekendy. W analizie reklam skierowanych do dzieci SGI-1776 in vitro w Wielkiej Brytanii wykazano, że aż 95% z nich promowało produkty o bardzo dużej zawartości tłuszczów i węglowodanów [14]. Niestety, w Polsce brakuje danych na temat podobnych badań. Coraz większym problemem stają się działania marketingowe

przemysłu spożywczego skierowane do dzieci i młodzieży bezpośrednio w szkołach. Z powodu stałych problemów finansowych władze oświatowe chętnie wynajmują powierzchnie reklamowe wewnątrz szkół, na salach gimnastycznych, autobusach szkolnych, koszulkach drużyn. W Stanach Zjednoczonych aż 95% sprzedanych powierzchni reklamowych w szkołach stanowiły reklamy produktów spożywczych. Niemal wszystkie koncerny spożywcze i sieci fast food Y-27632 molecular weight mają własne strony internetowe z odnośnikami skierowanymi bezpośrednio do dzieci i młodzieży. Na stronach tych znajdują się przede wszystkim gry komputerowe, puzzle, e-kartki, gry i konkursy, zawsze związane z produktem firmy. Dodatkowo wiele koncernów spożywczych współpracuje

z telewizjami tematycznymi dla dzieci i również na ich stronach internetowych są reklamowane produkty spożywcze w powiązaniu z grami i zabawami oferowanymi na portalu internetowym telewizji. Koncerny spożywcze i restauracje fast food o charakterze ogólnoświatowym są często głównymi sponsorami największych zawodów i klubów sportowych. Najbardziej Resveratrol znani sportowcy i bohaterowie filmów biorą bezpośredni udział w promowaniu produktów, przez co wzmacniają ich pozytywny wizerunek. Reklamy żywności mogą przyczyniać

się do rozwoju otyłości u dzieci na kilka sposobów [11], [12], [13] and [14]: • czas spędzony na oglądaniu telewizji lub przed ekranem komputera zmniejsza okres, który może być przeznaczony na aktywność fizyczną, Jako pierwsi na związek między czasem trwania oglądania telewizji a rosnącą częstością otyłości u dzieci uwagę zwrócili Dietz i Gortmaker [15]. W kolejnych swoich badaniach wykazali, że około 29% przypadków otyłości można by zapobiec, jeśli nakłoni się dzieci do skrócenia czasu oglądania telewizji [16]. Hancox i wsp. [17] w swojej pracy stwierdzili wyraźną zależność między oglądaniem telewizji w wieku dziecięcym i dojrzewania a występowaniem otyłości, słabą kondycją fizyczną, paleniem tytoniu i podwyższonym stężeniem cholesterolu w wieku dorosłym. Matheson i wsp. [18] wskazują, że znaczący procent spożywanych posiłków odbywa się w czasie oglądania telewizji, a w czasie weekendów dużą ich część stanowią pokarmy wysokokaloryczne, co może wpływać na wielkość wskaźnika masy ciała (BMI; body mass index) dziecka. Epstein i wsp.

The authors

suggest early life stress as a plausible risk

The authors

suggest early life stress as a plausible risk factor for inflammation that undergirds cancer-related fatigue. The empirical paper by Witek-Jansek et al. in this volume explores whether childhood adversity is associated with vulnerability for intense sustained behavioral symptoms, including fatigue and depressive symptoms, and quality of life and immune dysregulation (Witek Janusek et al., 2012). Irwin and colleagues describe the common presentation of sleep disturbance and depression in cancer survivors (Irwin et al., 2012). The authors outline a model in which sleep disturbance drives alterations in inflammatory biology, which result in of depressive symptoms and in clinical depression for some. The model acknowledges depression history and other psychosocial, biobehavioral, and medical factors that might act as moderators. The Lutgendorf BIBW2992 nmr laboratory contributes an analysis of associations between cortisol, interleukin-6, BMS-354825 mw depression, fatigue, and disability in ovarian cancer patients followed prospectively from pre-surgical baseline to one-year post surgery, and illustrates how chemotherapy acts to normalize these biological markers (Schrepf et al., 2012). Although challenges exist, the review by Costanzo et al. identifies opportunities to explore clinically significant PNI relationships

in a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation context (HSCT) (Costanzo et al., 2012). Improved understanding of the factors that moderate timely immune recovery and optimal immune

regulation might confer improved short- and long-term Avelestat (AZD9668) outcomes for HSCT recipients. Noted as challenges for PNI researchers working in a HSCT context are the pace of change and evolution in HSCT medicine and associated technical innovations. The secondary data analysis by McGregor et al. investigating the effect of pre-transplantation distress on white blood cell count among autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation patients, highlights these challenges (McGregor et al., 2012). Within the last decade, exercise has been established as an effective adjuvant therapy to control adverse consequences associated with cancer treatment. Jones et al. comprehensively reviews extant evidence linking exercise behavior, functional capacity/exercise capacity, disease recurrence, and cancer-specific and all-cause mortality (Betof et al., 2012). Further, the authors outline host and tumor-related mechanisms underlying the exercise/fitness and prognosis relationship and review evidence from pre-clinical animal models of cancer. This exciting work highlights exercise as one critical component of energy balance influences on cancer etiology, progression, and outcome (Hursting et al., 2012).

In order to analyze the bone matrix mineralization, mechanical pr

In order to analyze the bone matrix mineralization, mechanical properties and intra-specimen variations at the microscopic scale, tibiae were collected from four mice (2 males, 2 females), randomly selected from the wild type group and from

the oim group. The bones were fixed in 70% ethanol (1 week), dehydrated using a graded ethanol series (70, 80, 95 and 99% for 48 h in each), and substituted with xylene (24 h). The specimens were then infiltrated for 48 h in two successive changes of pure methyl methacrylate (MMA) replaced by two changes of MMA + α-azo-iso-butyronitrile Ixazomib price (24 h) and finally polymerized slowly at 37 °C (all chemicals purchased from VWR, UK). The tibiae were sectioned transversally at the mid-diaphysis with a low speed diamond saw (Isomet, Buehler GmbH, Germany) and the cross-sections were ground with increasingly finer ABT-888 nmr grades of carbide papers (from P500 to P4000) and finally polished with diamond slurry (diameter: 0.25 and 0.05 μm). The tibia mid-diaphyseal cross-sections were carbon coated and analyzed using qBSEM in an EVO®MA15 scanning electron microscope (Zeiss UK Ltd., UK) operated at 20 kV, at a working distance of 13 mm, and a beam current of 0.5 nA. The qBSEM digital images were recorded with a nominal magnification

of 137 × (field width: 2.133 mm, pixel size: 1.04 μm). The image backscattered electron (BSE) current signal (digitized in gray levels) were standardized against the BSE signals of monobromo and monoiodo dimethacrylate standards which span the signal range found for mineralized tissues: 0 (black, monobrom) representing osteoid and 255 (white, monoiod) representing Ribociclib purchase highly mineralized bone [28] and [29]. To facilitate visualization, the gray-level range was also divided into 8 equal size classes

(1–32, 33–64, 65–96, 97–128, 129–160, 161–192, 193–224, 225–255), representing no mineralization (class 1) to very high bone mineralization (class 8). The distribution of pixels into the different bone mineralization classes was then calculated and provides an estimate of the amount and distribution of bone mineral within a sample. For numerical analysis, each cross section image was automatically divided by a custom Matlab program into 12 areas corresponding to the periosteal, mid-cortex and endosteal sectors of the anterior, lateral, posterior and medial cross section quadrants. The mean pixel gray-level value in each sector was then calculated as an estimate of the mean amount of bone mineral in this sector. Nanoindentation tests were conducted on the same tibia mid-diaphyseal cross-sections to a maximum load of 8 mN at a constant loading rate of 800 μN/s in the longitudinal axis using the TI700 UBI (Hysitron, MN, USA) with a Berkovich diamond tip.

The ABS-OOTF agreed (Level 2 Consensus) that intravitreal anti-VE

The ABS-OOTF agreed (Level 2 Consensus) that intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy is useful to suppress radiation-induced neovascular glaucoma, radiation maculopathy, and optic neuropathy. Therapy is used to suppress transudation, thus ameliorate edema and counter neovascularization [119], [120], [121], [122] and [123]. However, although these techniques are widely used, the ABS-OOTF SCH772984 chemical structure recognizes that no published prospective randomized or large-scale studies examined the effects relative to initial radiation dose, dose rate, or source. The literature also contains two alternative approaches to the treatment of radiation

retinopathy. Laser photocoagulation in the form of posterior tumor demarcation resulted in sector devascularization best seen on fluorescein angiography. This technique along with sector pan retinal photocoagulation has been reported to slow or prevent radiation retinopathy by two independent centers [124] and [125]. Treatment converted slow ischemia within and anterior to the target to scar. In theory, laser devitalization of the ischemic tumor and treated retina may decrease

intraocular production of VEGF. However, brachytherapy also affects the eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctiva, tear production, corneal surface integrity, sclera, and ocular muscles [8], [100], [126] and [127]. Within the eye, radiation can cause iritis, uveitis, synechiae, CYC202 chemical structure neovascular glaucoma, cataract, posterior neovascularization, hemorrhage, retinal detachment, retinopathy, and optic neuropathy. The most common late sight

limiting posterior segment complication is radiation maculopathy. Unusual complications include persistent strabismus and scleral thinning. All the aforementioned side effects can result in loss of vision and quality of life. The ABS-OOTF recognize that there exists no comprehensive staging system for the ophthalmic side effects of radiation therapy. Although many of these findings are fundamentally, albeit less specifically, classified by the United States National Cancer Institute (Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 4.0, DCTD, National Cancer Institute, National Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) Institute of Health, Department of Health and Human Services (, the ABS-OOTF recommends that a radiation-specific ophthalmic side effect staging system should be developed to improve communication for patient care, research, and publication. This presentation of ABS-OOTF guidelines for ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy offers both consensus and controversy. We recommend that brachytherapy should be performed by a team composed of a skilled subspecialty-trained plaque surgeon, radiation oncologists, and medical physicists in experienced subspecialty centers.

Recently, natural products derived from

Recently, natural products derived from AZD8055 plant extracts and their synthetic derivatives have been used to treat a wide range of respiratory diseases due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. In

this line, oleanolic acid (OA), a triterpenoid compound present in a great variety of plants and food products (Liu, 2005), modulates the production and activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymatic antioxidant defence, as well as protects from oxidant stress by activating Nrf2 (Reisman et al., 2009, Takada et al., 2010 and Wang et al., 2010). Chemical synthesis of oleanolic acid has provided many useful derivatives that are more potent and specific than natural parent structures (Honda et al., 1997). Reddy et al. demonstrated

that intermittent administration of a synthetic triterpenoid compound, Navitoclax CDDO-imidazole (CDDO-Im) (1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl] imidazole, during exposure to hyperoxia confers protection against the development of ALI in mice (Reddy et al., 2009). However, the effects of oleanolic acid derivatives and triterpene derivatives are not necessarily similar to those of their parent molecules (Honda et al., 1998 and Honda et al., 1999). Additionally, even though the biological activity of oleanolic acid is lower than that of its derivatives, it is known to be relatively non-toxic (Liu, 1995 and Liu, 2005). We tested the hypothesis that oleanolic acid may curtail the inflammatory process, improving lung morphology and function in experimental ALI induced by paraquat. This study was approved by the Health Sciences Centre Ethics Committee at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. All animals received humane care in compliance with the “Principles of Laboratory Animal Care” formulated by

the National Society for Medical Research and the “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” prepared by the National Academy of Sciences, USA. One hundred and eight BALB/c male mice (20–25 g) were kept under specific pathogen-free conditions in the Laboratory of Thiamet G Pulmonary Investigation animal care facility. All animals were randomly assigned to two groups. In the control group (C), mice received saline intraperitoneally (50 μL, ip), while in the ALI group paraquat (25 mg/kg, ip) was administered. Both groups were further treated with saline [ALI-SAL (0.1 mL, ip)], oleanolic acid [ALI-OA (10 mg/kg, ip)] or dexamethasone [ALI-DEXA (1 mg/kg, ip)] ( Göcgeldi et al., 2008) 1 h after paraquat or saline injection, in randomized order. For the present ALI model, different doses of OA (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg animal body weight) were titrated in pilot studies, and the 10 mg/kg dose was chosen based on the lowest mortality rate and lung morphofunction impairment. Thirty-six mice (n = 6/each) were used to evaluate lung mechanics and histology, as well as molecular biology.