The amount of beta-carotene ranged between 0 and 2000 ppm The po

The amount of beta-carotene ranged between 0 and 2000 ppm. The polymer was characterised by different methods after processing then during and after storage at ambient temperature in light and dark. beta-Carotene hinders the oxidation

of polyethylene and does not increase the chain extension reactions during processing, though more vinyl groups and phosphonite molecules react. beta-Carotene colours polyethylene strongly already at low concentrations. The reactions of the polymer and beta-carotene are affected strongly by the storage conditions. The presence of beta-carotene does not influence E1 Activating inhibitor the stabilising efficiency of the primary and secondary antioxidants. In dark the molecular structure of the polymer does not change appreciably, while the reactions of beta-carotene lead to an increase in the yellowness index. In light the molecular characteristics of polyethylene undergo significant changes indicating long

chain branching. The polymer fades rapidly after an induction period. The length of the induction period is not influenced by light. The rate of the degradation reactions of beta-carotene GSK1210151A inhibitor during storage is controlled by its concentration and film thickness. Visible autoaccelerated decomposition in light renders -carotene candidate as an indicator in active packaging materials. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Multiplex genome engineering is a standalone recombineering tool for large-scale programming and accelerated evolution of cells. However, this advanced genome engineering technique has been limited to use in selected bacterial strains. We developed a simple and effective strain-independent method for effective genome engineering in Escherichia

coli. The method involves introducing a suicide plasmid carrying the l Red recombination system into the mutS gene. The suicide plasmid can be excised from the chromosome via selection in the absence of antibiotics, thus allowing transient inactivation of the mismatch repair system during genome engineering. In addition, we developed another suicide plasmid that enables integration of large DNA fragments into the lacZ genomic locus. These features enable this system to be applied in the exploitation of the benefits of genome engineering in synthetic biology, as well as the metabolic engineering of different strains of E. coli.”
“OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of gestational weight gain adequacy according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations and examine demographic, behavioral, psychosocial, and medical characteristics associated with inadequate and excessive gain stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category. METHODS: We used cross-sectional, population-based data on women delivering full-term (37 weeks of gestation or greater), singleton neonates in 28 states who participated in the 2010 or 2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

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