“Emodin, the major active component of Rhubarb, has shown

“Emodin, the major active component of Rhubarb, has shown neuroprotective activity. This study is attempted to investigate whether emodin possesses beneficial effects on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced behavioral deficits (depression-like behaviors) and explore the possible mechanisms. ICR mice were subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress for 42 consecutive days. Then, emodin and fluoxetine (positive control drug) were administered for 21 consecutive days at the last three Bioactive Compound Library concentration weeks of CUMS procedure. The classical behavioral tests: open field

test (OFT), sucrose preference test (SPT), tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) were applied to evaluate the antidepressant effects of emodin. Then plasma corticosterone concentration, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were tested to probe the mechanisms. Our results indicated that 6 weeks of CUMS exposure induced significant depression-like behavior, with high, plasma corticosterone concentration and low hippocampal GR and BDNF expression levels. Whereas, chronic emodin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) treatments reversed the behavioral deficiency induced by CUMS exposure. Treatment with emodin normalized

the change of plasma corticosterone level, which demonstrated that emodin could partially restore CUMS-induced HPA axis GSK1120212 solubility dmso impairments. Besides, hippocampal GR (mRNA and protein) and BDNF (mRNA) expressions were also up-regulated after emodin treatments. In conclusion, PF-04929113 emodin remarkably improved depression-like behavior in CUMS mice and its antidepressant activity is mediated, at least in part, by the up-regulating GR and BDNF levels in hippocampus. (C)2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a facultative intracellular pathogen. Previous studies have indicated that the ability of Y. pestis to survive inside macrophages may be critical during

the early stages of plague pathogenesis. To gain insights into the biology of intracellular Y. pestis and its environment following phagocytosis, we determined the genome-wide transcriptional profile of Y. pestis KIM5 replicating inside J774.1 macrophage-like cells using DNA microarrays. At 1.5, 4, and 8 h postinfection, a total of 801, 464, and 416 Y. pestis genes were differentially regulated, respectively, compared to the level of gene expression of control bacteria grown in tissue culture medium. A number of stress-response genes, including those involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species, as well as several metabolic genes involved in macromolecule synthesis, were significantly induced in intracellular Y. pestis, consistent with the presence of oxidative stress and nutrient starvation inside Yersinia-containing vacuoles.

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