Our findings indicate that high-quality habitat that can act as c

Our findings indicate that high-quality habitat that can act as core areas is crucial for spider monkeys. However, just protecting the core areas is not sufficient when planning for spider monkey conservation, especially when their core areas consist of spatially separate nuclei within the home range (Fig. 1). At least in tropical dry forest undergoing regeneration, the matrix between core areas needs to be protected because it contains arboreal routes between critical resources and because barriers to dispersal

would likely reduce population viability in the long term (Laurance, 2004). In addition, non-core areas included a large proportion of mature and last regeneration-stage forest and contained 66% of the food trees (Fig. 1). This means that core areas by themselves were insufficient in providing the minimum nutritional requirement Talazoparib chemical structure for the study community. Furthermore, the level of use an area receives is not necessarily related to its importance during critical periods (Buchanan, Fredrikson & Seaman, 1998). For example, during this study, spider monkeys were observed to drink from two creeks just twice in the driest days of the year (pers. obs.). These water locations were outside the identified

core areas, but they were likely crucial for the NVP-BEZ235 mw monkeys’ survival. Thus, although we demonstrated that spider monkeys’ core areas contain critical features and are a key to understand their movement ecology and habitat preferences, conservation initiatives in tropical dry forests need to focus

on larger areas than spatially separate core areas. We thank E. Murillo-Chacon and the staff from Santa Rosa sector, especially R. Blanco and M. M. Chavarria, for their support during field work; M. Luinstra, S. Wilson, A.M. Nuttall, E. Willems, F. Eigenbrod, C. Garcia, L. Maher, M.A. Veganzones and W.Y. Brockelman for valuable input on GIS; A. Douglas and T. Cornulier for insightful discussion; R. Espinoza and A. Guadamuz for botanical assistance; and A.C. Palma and an anonymous reviewer for helpful comments. This study was financially supported by the Leakey Foundation, the North of England Zoological Society and The British Academy. N.A. was supported by the Department of Political medchemexpress Science of the Basque Government (Zientzia Politikarako Zuzendaritza) and the Postdoctoral Fellowship program of Mahidol University, Thailand. Observations complied with current laws in Costa Rica. “
“Physical space is a fundamental habitat constraint for interstitial space-dwelling organisms; however, few studies have examined how physical space variation structures predator/prey interactions within such communities. Streambeds in the western Ozark Plateau are composed of Silurian/Ordovician chert gravel and contain a rich assemblage of interstitial space-dwelling species, including macroinvertebrates, fishes and aquatic salamanders.

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