In contrast, CSF IL-6 levels were slightly elevated in patients w

In contrast, CSF IL-6 levels were slightly elevated in patients with NBD and significantly elevated in patients with AM and MS compared with healthy controls. Patients with NBD were subdivided into two groups according to their clinical course (eight patients with a slowly progressive course presenting with psychosis and dementia and 10 patients with an acute course including aseptic meningitis, brainstem involvement and myelopathy). BAFF levels

were significantly increased in those with a slowly progressive course compared with those with an acute course. CSF BAFF levels did not correlate with serum BAFF levels, CSF cell counts or CSF IL-6 levels in patients with NBD. These data suggested that BAFF was produced within the central nervous system and may be associated with the development of NBD, particularly with a progressive course. “
“Patients carrying activating killer

cell immunoglobulin-like Galunisertib receptor (KIR) genes are significantly protected from CMV-associated complications after solid selleckchem organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Whether previous infection with CMV affects NK-cell function in healthy donors is unknown. We studied the KIR repertoire and alterations of KIR expression after in vitro exposure to CMV in 54 healthy donors. The expression of neither activating nor inhibitory KIRs was different at baseline between 23 seropositive and 31 seronegative donors. However, after co-culture of NK cells with CMV-infected fibroblast cells, expression of the inhibitory N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase receptors KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL3 and the activating receptor KIR3DS1 significantly increased in CMV-seropositive donors. In CMV-seronegative donors, changes were subtle and restricted to the subset of NK cells expressing NK-cell group antigen 2C (NKG2C). Expansion of inhibitory KIRs occurred exclusively in donors carrying the cognate HLA class I ligands, whereas the presence of the putative ligand HLA-Bw4 was not necessary for the expansion of KIR3DS1-expressing NK cells. Our data show that previous infection with CMV does not alter the resting NK-cell

receptor repertoire, but appears to modify how NK cells respond to re-exposure to CMV in vitro. NK cells are an important component of the immune system in the control of viral infection [1]. Unlike B and T cells, NK cells do not display rearranged receptors but instead are regulated by the integration of signaling from germline encoded activating and inhibitory receptors. One important and incompletely characterized family of receptors are the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) [2]. KIRs are almost exclusively expressed on NK cells and encoded by 15 different gene loci, nine inhibitory iKIRs, and six activating aKIRs. The KIR genes cluster in chromosome 19, forming haplotypes composed of 7–11 individual KIR genes. The most common haplotype in Caucasians contains mostly iKIRs accompanied by a single or no aKIR gene and is called “A” haplotype [3].

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