“Uncontrolled viral replication and antiretroviral treatme

“Uncontrolled viral replication and antiretroviral treatment (ART) may independently contribute to hepatic mitochondrial toxicity. The present study

was designed to explore the longitudinal effects of treatment modifications on hepatic mitochondrial function by means of noninvasive 13C-methionine breath test (MeBT) diagnostics. A total of 113 HIV-infected patients underwent two consecutive MeBTs over an interval of 11.8±3.5 months. Forty-nine patients remained on stable ART or no therapy; 28 participants switched ART; 27 patients (re)initiated ART, and nine individuals underwent a structured treatment interruption (STI) of ART between MeBTs 1 and 2. Breath test results were expressed as cumulative percentage dose of 13CO2 recovered after 1.5 h test time (cPDR1.5h). Initiation of ART in treatment-naïve individuals and patients on Carfilzomib mouse STI was associated

with a significant improvement of hepatic mitochondrial function (P<0.05). Cessation of ART or a prolonged delay in initiating therapy in treatment-naïve patients in turn led to a significant decline of 13C-exhalation compared with baseline (P<0.05). A marked increase in 13C-exhalation AZD4547 price was observed in individuals who switched from stavudine or ddI to tenofovir or abacavir (+170%; P<0.001), while no differences between MeBTs 1 and 2 were found in individuals on ART who had remained on stable regimens or in those who changed a protease

inhibitor (PI) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) component. The present data suggest that hepatic mitochondrial function in HIV disease is a dynamic process with a high regenerative capacity and highlight the pathogenic relevance of HIV replication. Our findings suggest that modern ART per se does not negatively impact hepatic mitochondrial function. Increasingly, deaths among mafosfamide HIV-infected persons are caused by hepatic complications [1,2]. Indeed, the majority of liver-related morbidity within the D:A:D cohort has been attributed to viral hepatitis coinfection. In the next few decades, a shift of morbidity to metabolic liver diseases is likely, analogous to the rising prevalence of the metabolic syndrome within the HIV-negative population [3]. The putative pathogenic role of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this context is contested. Although the introduction of combination ART (cART) has reduced overall hepatic morbidity in both HIV-monoinfected and HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected individuals, data on the long-term hepatotoxic effects of ART are absent. Two recently published cross-sectional trials showed a prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV-monoinfected patients of about 30%, which seems to be higher than calculated for the age-adjusted HIV-negative population [4,5].

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