Triazoloacridinones exhibit in vivo activity against leukemia, murine carcinoma, lung carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and colon carcinoma (Cholody et al., 1990, 1992, 1996; Kusnierczyk et
al., 1994; Burger et al., 1996a, b; Lamb and Wheatley, 1996; Calabrese et al., 1998, 1999; Alami et al., 2007; De Marco et al., 2007; Bram et al., 2007). As was previously shown (Składanowski et al., 1999; Lemke et al., 2004; Augustin et al., 2004, 2006; Wesierska-Gadek et al., 2004; Koba and Konopa, 2007; Koba et al., 2009), cellular DNA is important target for the triazoloacridinone drugs, and hence interactions with DNA are naturally the crucial point in view of the biological activity of these compounds. In previous article (Składanowski et al., 1999; Lemke et al., Idasanutlin price 2004), it was indicated that triazoloacridinones inhibit cleavable complexes of topoisomerase II with DNA. They inhibit also nucleic acid or protein synthesis induced by G2 block of cell cycle followed by apoptosis (Augustin et al., 2004, 2006; Wesierska-Gadek et al., 2004), intercalating to DNA and binding in minor groove (Koba and Konopa, 2007; Koba selleck compound et al., 2009) and/or forming of interstrand DNA crosslinks (Koba and Konopa, 2007). In addition, it was shown that intercalation to DNA takes place preferentially in guanine triplet regions
inducing changes in DNA structures (Lemke et al., 2005). For imidazoacridinones, it was demonstrated that intercalation to DNA undergoes at physiological condition with parallel stabilization of double-stranded DNA and unwinding of supercoiled DNA (Burger et al., 1999; Dziegielewski et al., 2002). The intercalative binding mode of acridinone derivatives was also confirmed with the use of molecular-modeling studies (Mazerski and Muchniewicz, 2000). Similar to other DNA-binding agents, treatment of Branched chain aminotransferase tumor cells with imidazoacridinones induces topoisomerase II-associated DNA strand breaks (Składanowski et al., 1996), arrests cells in G2 phase, and
stimulates apoptosis (Zaffaroni et al., 2001; Skwarska et al., 2007) or mitotic catastrophe (Hyzy et al., 2005; Skwarska et al., 2007). However, after testing imidazoacridinone and triazoloacridinone derivatives, it has been concluded that although the intercalative binding to DNA seems to be necessary for their biological activity (the most active compounds have usually the highest binding affinity), it is not sufficient (some inactive analogs also bind strongly with DNA) (Dziegielewski et al., 2002; Koba and Konopa, 2007). Moreover, acridinones undergo enzymatic oxidation, and this reaction is important for their biological activity as intercalation to DNA and covalent adducts formation (Dziegielewski and Konopa, 1996; Mazerska et al., 1999, 2003). In this context, noncovalent interaction of acridinones may help position drug molecules on DNA for the covalent reaction. In this article, physicochemical interactions of acridinones with DNA were evaluated in view of quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR).