This will prove to be a valuable resource for further studies Th

This will prove to be a valuable resource for further studies. The following are the supplementary data related to this article. Supplementary

Fig. 1.   Relative expression. The comparisons of the qPCR and the microarray results of 10 genes for all tissues show very similar expression profiles for the two methods. T-tests were used to test for difference in expression measured using qPCR and microarrays. All significantly different (defined as p < 0.05) buy Vorinostat expression levels are indicated. This work was conducted as part of the PrevenT project financed by the Research Council of Norway. “
“As mammals age, muscle mass and strength decrease progressively, a phenomenon known as sarcopenia (Wickham et al. 1989). Sarcopenia is characterized by the reduction in the size and number of muscle fibers, muscle mass, and the ratio of slow-twitch muscle fibers to fast-twitch muscle fibers (Lexell et al. 1988). Sarcopenia is a major determinant of Selleckchem isocitrate dehydrogenase inhibitor the decline in physical function in older adults (Cruz-Jentoft et al. 2010). Although some trials have aimed at reversing the reduction in muscle mass, there is currently no effective

pharmaceutical treatment for sarcopenia (Sayer et al. 2013). Multiple factors appear to be involved in the development of sarcopenia: changes in insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), changes in the mitochondrial network, and chronic inflammation are followed by alterations in signaling pathways in the muscle (Bonaldo and Sandri 2013).

IGF-1 activates phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), resulting in Akt activation. Akt inhibits protein degradation by repressing the forkhead box protein (FoxO) family, leading to expression of atrogin-1/Muscle Atrophy F-box (MAFbx) and Muscle RING-Finger Protein-1 (MuRF1) (Brunet et al., 1999 and Franke, Kaplan selleck chemicals and Cantley, 1997). Akt stimulates protein synthesis by regulating glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) (Moule et al. 1997). It has been shown that lower plasma concentrations of IGF-1 and higher plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are associated with lower muscle mass and strength in the elderly (Donahue et al., 1990 and Visser et al., 2002). Go-sha-jinki-Gan (GJG) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine composed of 10 herbal drugs in fixed proportions (Usuki et al. 1991). This medicine has been used to alleviate various types of age-related conditions in the locomotor apparatus. Previous studies have not reported any severe adverse effects of GJG in humans (Launer et al. 1990). Despite the potential of GJG as an anti-aging drug, few studies have clarified its effect on senescent skeletal muscle. Therefore, we investigated whether GJG can protect against sarcopenia by using senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8), which exhibit several accelerated aging characteristics, are widely used in aging research (Takeda et al. 1997), and have been reported to bet a cost-effective model for muscular aging studies (Derave et al. 2005).

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