SO, MO, and SOP presented altered cardio-respiratory coupling dur

SO, MO, and SOP presented altered cardio-respiratory coupling during sleep, and these alterations are related with severity of obesity

and OSA parameters.”
“Objective: This article is reporting a method for establishment primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the spiral modiolar artery (SMA).

Methods: VSMCs were isolated from guinea pig SMAs. Arterial tissues were cut and enzymatically digested at 37 degrees C for 20 min using a 0.1% trypsin solution. After digestion, tissue fragments were explanted in a 35-mm culture dish. Contaminated fibroblasts were separated from VSMCs because of their different adhesion abilities. The cells migrated from the explants within 7-10 days and grew to confluence in approximately 4 weeks.

Results: We obtained pure and viable VSMCs from the confluent third passage. The morphological HDAC inhibitor and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated a “”hill-and-valley”" growth pattern that is characteristics of VSMCs, and the expression of cell type-specific markers (alpha-smooth muscle actin and myosin), respectively. The change of intracellular calcium concentration

induced by angiotensin II and CaCl2 showed that the VSMCs had good cell viability.

Conclusion: We obtained purified VSMCs using this method. All cell cultures expressed P005091 cost smooth muscle markers (alpha-SM actin, and myosin) and were negative for vWF. This article provides a simple method to obtain VSMCs for in vitro studies of physiology and pathophysiology in the circulation disturbances of the inner ear. In addition, VSMCs are regarded to be an excellent model to evaluate drugs in vitro. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“As laparoscopic techniques and instrumentation advance, bariatric surgery selleck compound has begun to

be performed through smaller incisions and fewer ports. Since the visualization of the dorso-lateral portion of the left liver lobe is critical for most bariatric procedures, surgeons have developed various techniques for providing adequate liver retraction without compromising patient safety. Herein, we present our experience with a port-free internal liver retractor used for bariatric cases.

Endolift (TM) does not require an additional port or anchoring to an external device. After insertion through an existing 5-mm port by means of the applier, one of the two attached clips (one on either end) was anchored to the left crus of the diaphragm while the other was fixed to the peritoneum above the right liver lobe through or beneath the falciform ligament. At the end of the surgery, the device was easily removed by using the applier.

We used this technique for 31 Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses and 2 single-incision sleeve gastrectomies. There were 24 females and 9 males with a mean age of 46 and mean body mass index 45.0 kg/m(2). The mean operative time was 136.5 min. The time required for the placement of the device was 1-3 min.

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