“Objectives: To review the current literature


“Objectives: To review the current literature

regarding selleckchem emerging viral pathogens in the context of rheumatic diseases with the intent of increasing awareness among rheumatologists and treating physicians, aiming at early recognition and treatment of these patients.

Methods: We reviewed case reports, case series, review articles, and original reports from PubMed (www.pubmed.gov) regarding various aspects influencing spread of infectious diseases including epidemiology and viral and human factors that are potentially responsible for the emergence of new viral pathogens. By consensus, we generated a list of emerging viral pathogens pertinent regarding presentation with rheumatologic manifestations and

then short-listed this website several with particular clinical relevance including hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency virus, and Chikungunya viruses for discussion in greater detail.

Results: There has been a change in the epidemiology and clinical rheumatic manifestations of previously known viral pathogens as well as the emergence of new viral pathogens as a consequence of factors such as changes in environmental temperature and its consequences, changes in vector and parasite biology, and human influences such as treatment and immunization.

Conclusions: Rheumatologists need to be cognizant of the changing landscape of emerging viral pathogens as they may present with myriad clinical features. Recognition of these pathogens is important to guide correct treatment and prognosis. Given the current scenario of global epidemiologic factors that influence viral emergence, we should expect a growing number of future emerging pathogens. Ongoing research directed at understanding pathogenesis and transmission as well as developing better preventive strategies may help counter the threat posed by emerging pathogens. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Semin

Arthritis Rheum 41:236-246″
“To test the measurement equivalence (i.e., invariance) of osteoporosis-specific and general health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) instruments in Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women.

A total of 258 Aboriginal CDK inhibitor and 181 non-Aboriginal women were recruited to the First Nations Bone Health Study from rural and urban sites in the province of Manitoba, Canada. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the mini-Osteoporosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (mini-OQLQ) were administered to study participants by trained interviewers. Confirmatory factor analysis techniques were adopted to test hypotheses about four forms of invariance for the two groups using likelihood ratio tests and other goodness-of-fit indices.

For the mini-OQLQ instrument configural and metric invariance were satisfied, indicating that both groups have the same conceptualization of osteoporotic quality of life and the concepts have equivalent meaning.

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