List of SNPs identified in the ssl8 coding and upstream regions i

List of SNPs identified in the ssl8 coding and upstream regions in Staphylococcus aureus strains. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible

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“Tannerella forsythia is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe closely associated with both periodontal and periapical diseases. The ORF TF0022 of strain ATCC 43037 encodes a hybrid two-component system consisting of an N-terminal histidine kinase and a C-terminal response regulator. Disruption of the TF0022 locus enhanced autoaggregation of the broth-cultured cells. Comparative proteome analyses revealed that two S-layer proteins in the TF0022 mutant exhibited decreased apparent masses by denaturing gel electrophoresis, suggesting a deficiency in post-translational modification. Furthermore, Alectinib manufacturer the mutant decreased the production of a glycosyltransferase encoded by TF1061 that is located in a putative glycosylation-related gene cluster. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed reduced transcription of TF1061 and the associated genes in the TF0022 mutant. These results indicate that TF0022 upregulates the expression of the glycosylation-related genes and suggest modulation

of the autoaggregation of T. forsythia cells by a possible post-translational modification of cell-surface components. Tannerella forsythia (formerly Bacteroides forsythus and Tannerella forsythensis) is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe

find more closely associated with both periodontal and periapical diseases (Tanner et al., 1986; Lotufo et al., 1994; Gonçalves & Mouton, 1999). This organism is frequently accompanied by the periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola, which together are the principal causative agents of the major infectious diseases Oxymatrine of the oral cavity (Socransky et al., 1998; Tanner & Izard, 2006; Gomes et al., 2007). Tannerella forsythia is fastidious and requires N-acetyl-muramic acid for stable growth under laboratory conditions (Wyss, 1989). Its known virulence factors include proteases (Greiner, 1995; Saito et al., 1997), BspA (Sharma et al., 1998), an α-d-glucosidase and an N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (Hughes et al., 2003), surface layer (S-layer) proteins (Sabet et al., 2003; Lee et al., 2006), and a sialidase (Thompson et al., 2009; Roy et al., 2010). Oral anaerobes with restricted biological niches must adjust to their particular environment. Growth and virulence of pathogenic bacteria, including oral anaerobes, are often modulated by His-Asp phosphorelay mechanisms such as two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), which respond to environmental stimuli (Stock et al., 2000). Porphyromonas gingivalis, for example, utilizes TCSs to regulate the expression of its major virulence factors (Hasegawa et al., 2003; Nishikawa et al.

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