In certain mouse models of airway inflammation,

such as t

In certain mouse models of airway inflammation,

such as those driven by HDM allergen or ozone, IL-17A controls BHR and airway remodeling but did not affect airway eosinophila and Th2-cell recruitment to the airways, and some of the pathogenic effects of IL-17 are mediated directly on bronchial smooth muscle cells and local fibroblast progenitors [91-95]. Moreover, IL-17A can induce steroid insensitivity in bronchial epithelial cells [96]. In some situations, IL-17 counteracts the immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of Treg cells, thus increasing inflammation NVP-BKM120 manufacturer and BHR [95]. Upon exposure to fungal spores, IL-23 and IL-17A can also dampen inflammation, in a pathway requiring TLR6 and IL-23 expression

in lung DCs in mice [97, 98]. This pathway might be clinically relevant given the association between TLR6 SNPs and the risk of asthma in humans [99]. The cytokine IL-22 is increasingly implicated in controlling immunity at barrier surfaces, by inducing antimicrobial peptides and by controlling mucosal barrier integrity. Prominent sources of IL-22 are the type 3 ILCs expressing the NK-cell receptor NKp46, and Th cells expressing IL-22 either exclusively (Th22) or in combination with IL-17. Although IL-22 seems to mediate protection from oxazolone and DSS colitis, it can act as a proinflammatory cytokine in models of skin inflammation [100-102]. Increased numbers of cells expressing IL-22 have been found in the bloodstream and bronchial mucosa of patients with asthma [103], but it is unclear whether the source of this increased IL-22 are ILC3 cells, Th22 cells, or Th17 cells [104, 105]. IL-22 has the potential to promote smooth muscle cell proliferation, which could be important in controlling Vasopressin Receptor the BHR that is typical of asthma. In mouse models of asthma, IL-22 appears to have a dual (pro- and anti-inflammatory) role, and studies in IL-22-deficient mice have revealed conflicting results in this regard [104, 106]. Neutralization of IL-22 during sensitization to OVA in an

OVA-induced model of asthma in mice severely hampered the development of all asthma features. Conversely, neutralization of IL-22 during allergen challenge increased inflammation, consistent with the potential of IL-22 to enforce mucosal barrier function, and reduce the production of epithelial pro-Th2 cytokines such as IL-25, and the subsequent production of ILC2-derived IL-13 [104-106]. Exactly how IL-22 exerts its anti-inflammatory effects in asthma is still unclear. Administration of rIL-22 to the lungs of mice has the potential to suppress the production of epithelial proTh2 cytokines such as IL-25 [105]. In human bronchial epithelial cells, IL-22 also inhibits the proinflammatory effects of IFN-γ on chemokine secretion [107].

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