For this, an immunoproteomic approach combined with 2-DE, immunob

For this, an immunoproteomic approach combined with 2-DE, immunoblotting and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS has been developed. Immunoproteomic profiles of sera collected from patients with CSD and IE were compared with those of blood donors. We identified several candidate proteins as phage-encoding Pap31 protein and an outer membrane protein of BH11510 that, in our view, might be useful for the serodiagnosis of bartonellosis. Bartonella henselae is an emerging gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen causing ABT-263 research buy epidemiological and pathological concern.

Cats are the reservoir host, and transmission to humans occurs by cat scratches. The wide spectrum of diseases that it causes is linked to the host immune state and includes cat scratch disease (CSD), bacillary

angiomatosis, infective endocarditis (IE) and prolonged fever (Loutit, 1997; Lesprit et al., 2003; Loa et al., 2006; Walls et al., 2006; Gouriet et al., 2007). In addition, this bacterium is unique in its invasion mechanism (Dehio et al., 1997; Dehio, 1999), driving angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo (Kempf et al., 2001). The clinical diagnosis of IE due to B. henselae or Bartonella quintana is based on the Duke criteria (Li et al., 2000), whereas CSD diagnosis is based on five criteria: the presence of a cutaneous inoculation lesion, chronic lymphadenopathy, cat contact (scratches Daporinad clinical trial or bites), a granuloma observed on histologic examination of lymph node tissue biopsies or a positive diagnostic test (Maurin et al., 1997). Because B. henselae can have uncommon manifestations in humans, the diagnosis of infection due to B. henselae is still based on serological detection by an Diflunisal immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked

immunoassay [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or enzyme immunoassay (EIA)]. Antibody titers are different, however, between CSD and IE patients, with an immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer ≥1 : 64 considered positive for CSD, while IE patients exhibit antibody titers ≥1 : 800 (Fournier et al., 2002; Jacomo et al., 2002). The immunoproteomic method, a technique involving two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis, followed by immunoblotting, has been used recently to identify immunogenic proteins for B. quintana (Boonjakuakul et al., 2007) and B. henselae (McCool et al., 2008; Eberhardt et al., 2009). Although McCool et al. (2008) found that GroES, BepA and GroEL were highly reactive in positive sera tested, a single protein profile for B. henselae proteome was not identified. Similarly, Eberhardt et al. (2009) found that 11 proteins were immunodominant antigens for B. henselae in 33 sera of patients. In this study, we attempted to identify biomarker proteins to differentiate specific proteins in patients with CSD and IE due to B.

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