Examples are the miRNA cluster 99b/125a-5p/let7e, miR-187 and miR

Examples are the miRNA cluster 99b/125a-5p/let7e, miR-187 and miR-146b, which are induced by LPS in an IL-10-dependent manner, while miR-511 is induced by dexamethasone. M. Pagani (Milan) presented miRNA profiles in 17 lymphocyte subsets and evidence for the importance of miR-125b in the regulation of genes related to T-cell differentiation (IFNG, selleck kinase inhibitor IL2RB, IL10RA, PRDM1). Concerning

vaccines and infections, the mechanism of action of MF59, an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, was described by E. De Gregorio (Siena). Based on the immune response of immune individuals in endemic areas, K. Matuschewski (Berlin) summarized his findings on the rational development of a whole-organism anti-malaria vaccine, while V. Barnaba (Rome) described the polyclonal CD8+ T-cell response to apoptotic self-antigens related to the chronic evolution of hepatitis C. The multi-level host responses to influenza MG-132 solubility dmso A virus infection was studied by E. Wilk (Braunschweig) who recorded the transcriptome of the lungs from C57Bl/6J mice over a period of 60 days and presented an extensive description of the transcriptional changes occurring during the switch from innate to acquired immunity. In the B-cell section, E. Ferretti (Genova) reported that IL-31R is expressed in

follicular B lymphoma cells and that its ligand IL-31 triggers tumor cell proliferation, while J. Freitag (Jena) described the attempts and strategies to establish a retrogenic Tacrolimus (FK506) mouse that expresses transgenic anti-HEL membrane IgM receptors. After the morning symposia and workshops, a keynote lecture focussed on advanced technologies in immunology. E. O’Connor (Valencia) discussed the most recent methods, including

the spectacular tool that is mass-spectrometric cytometry, which allows the simultaneous analysis of several dozen of parameters (cell phenotype and functions) in the same cell. Autoimmunity and chronic inflammation, control of humoral immunity and antigen-presenting cells were some of the topics addressed in the early afternoon. F. Aloisi (Rome) discussed how Epstein Barr virus has gained increased credibility as the main culprit of some major B-cell-related autoimmune diseases (SLE, RA, MS, among others) over recent years. D. Engel (Bonn) discussed how pathogenic Th1 cells are generated in postoperative ileus. The renaissance of transcriptional “Th1” programs was further highlighted by M. Löhning (Berlin) who showed that LCMV infection reprograms Th2 cells into a stable GATA-3+ T-bet+ “Th2+1” hybrid cell subset. Finally, L. Maggi (Florence) provided correlative evidence that “Th1+17” cells play a role in in chronic rheumatic inflammation. During a symposium on humoral immunity, J. Wienands (Göttingen) identified signal transducers that are involved in the differential activation of IgG memory versus naive IgM B cells. V. T. Chu (Berlin) showed that eosinophils play a critical role in the memory plasma cell survival niche of the bone marrow, and R.

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