Defensin mRNA levels were quantified by reverse transcription-pol

Defensin mRNA levels were quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and peptide release into culture supernatants was quantified by immuno dot blot or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Increasing concentrations of SEB down-regulated DEFA5, DEFA6 and DEFB1 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner but increased DEFB2 simultaneously. The down-regulation of alpha-defensins was reversed by dexamethasone. DEFA5 and DEFB2 peptide secretion levels were altered in parallel with mRNA. Interferon-gamma and interleukin (IL)-1 beta exhibited

a dose-dependent down-regulation of alpha-defensin mRNA, IL-6 significantly down-regulated only DEFA6; in contrast, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-4 had no significant effect. Immune cell activation and proinflammatory cytokines down-regulated the constitutively expressed DEFA5, DEFA6 and DEFB1 defensins, and up-regulated DEFB2 in intact human intestinal tissue explants in short-term culture. The effect of local immune activation on innate defence may explain the reduced alpha-defensin

expression noted in inflammatory T cell-mediated enteropathies.”
“Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 utilizes para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. In order to identify the genes involved in this utilization, we cloned and sequenced a 12.7-kb fragment containing a conserved see more region of NAD(P) H: quinone oxidoreductase genes. Of the products of the 13 open reading frames deduced from this fragment, PnpA shares 24% identity to the large component of a 3-hydroxy-phenylacetate hydroxylase AZD9291 from Pseudomonas putida U and PnpB is 58% identical to an NAD(P) H: quinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli. Both PnpA and PnpB were purified to homogeneity as His-tagged proteins, and they were considered to be a monomer and a dimer, respectively, as determined by gel filtration. PnpA is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent single-component

PNP 4-monooxygenase that converts PNP to para-benzoquinone in the presence of NADPH. PnpB is a flavin mononucleotide-and NADPH-dependent p-benzoquinone reductase that catalyzes the reduction of p-benzoquinone to hydroquinone. PnpB could enhance PnpA activity, and genetic analyses indicated that both pnpA and pnpB play essential roles in PNP mineralization in strain WBC-3. Furthermore, the pnpCDEF gene cluster next to pnpAB shares significant similarities with and has the same organization as a gene cluster responsible for hydroquinone degradation (hapCDEF) in Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB (M.J. Moonen, N.M. Kamerbeek, A.H. Westphal, S.A. Boeren, D.B. Janssen, M.W. Fraaije, and W.J. van Berkel, J. Bacteriol. 190: 5190-5198, 2008), suggesting that the genes involved in PNP degradation are physically linked.

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