All the cases were evaluated using complete audiological test bat

All the cases were evaluated using complete audiological test battery consisting of pure tone audiometry (PTA), impedance audiometry, acoustic reflexes, otoacoustic emissions (OAE), and brain stem evoked response audiometry (BERA). The instrument used was GSI Audera. BERA with both condensation and rarefaction polarity was performed in cases with absent wave V even at highest intensity levels. The criteria used for diagnosis of ANSD was normal or near normal cochlear hair cells (sensory) function (preservation of otoacoustic emissions and/or cochlear microphonics) and absent or abnormal auditory nerve function (absent or severely abnormal auditory brainstem JAK inhibitor potentials). A repeat test battery

was performed after 3 months on the diagnosed cases of auditory neuropathy. Based on their behavioural findings the appropriate management

programme was formulated.

Results: A total of 487 paediatric cases were referred for hearing evaluation. 183 (37.6%) cases showed absent BERA and 26(5.3%) cases fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for ANSD. Repeat examination after 3 months revealed presence of OAE’s in 57.6% (15/26) cases while cochlear microphonics were present in all the 26 cases.

Conclusion: The prevalence of ANSD in our study is 5.3% and in children diagnosed with severe to profound hearing loss is 14%. Presence of cochlear microphonics with absent BERA seems to be reliable criteria for diagnosing ANSD. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The reaction of isocyanates and isothiocyanates with long-chain alcohols, e. g. SNX-5422 purchase n-hexanol, n-heptanol and n-octanol, exclusively gave N-aryl-O-alkyl carbamates, while N-aryl-O-alkyl carbamates were signaling pathway formed along with symmetrical 1,3-disubstituted ureas and thioureas when the same reactions were carried out with small-chain alcohols at room temperature without using any solvent.”

To evaluate whether the addition of BCS (balloon catheter sinuplasty) would improve the treatment outcome in children with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) compared to FESS (functional endoscopic sinus surgery).

Study design: Two-group, retrospective cohort with blinded chart review comparison.

Setting: Children’s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI.

Subjects and methods: Chart review of 15 pediatric patients who underwent BCS with ethmoidectomy and 16 who underwent FESS from 2008 to 2011 for treatment of CRS in a tertiary care, university affiliated, pediatric institution. Pre-operative CT-scans as well as pre and post-operative sinus symptoms and medications were compared. Post-surgical outcome was examined using chi square analysis.

Results: Mean age of children at the time of the procedure was 9.3 (SD = 4.19; range = 3-17). Both groups had similar pre-surgical Lund-Mackay CT CRS scores (FESS: mean = 9.33 and t = 0.67; balloon: mean = 10.58, t = 0.68, and p = 0.51).

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