92j and k). Anamorph: Only hyphopodia-like Sorafenib manufacturer structures (or conidia?) observed (Zhang et al. 2008a). Colonies (of epitype) reaching 5 cm diam. after 20 days growth on MEA at 25°C, raised, woolly, deep grey, with irregular to rhizoidal margin, reverse darkened. Hyphopodia-like structures (or conidia?) produced after 6 months, hyaline to pale brown, lobed, 4–4.5(−5) μm long and 3–3.5 μm diam. Material examined: EUROPE, Upsala, on decaying wood, designated by Boise (1985), (L-Pers 910269–172, as Sphaeria pertusa Pers., neotype); FRANCE, Deux Sèvres, Sansais, Le Vanneau, Les Grandes Mottines, swamp, on bark of a dead
stump of Fraxinus excelsior, 25 Apr. 2004, J. Fournier (IFRD 2002, epitype); Haute Garonne, Avignonet,
Canal du Midi, on submerged wood of Platanus in a canal, Peptide 17 molecular weight 23 Nov. 2006, Michel Delpont, det. J. Fournier (IFRD2003). Notes Morphology Trematosphaeria was formally established in ‘Rhenish fungi’ by Fuckel (1870) based on the broadly pertuse ascomata, and Fries (1823) assigned it under Ascomycetes, Pyrenomycetes, Lophiostomataceae. Subsequently, Winter (1885) placed Trematosphaeria in Amphisphaeriaceae. Berlese (1890), however, treated Trematosphaeria as a synonym of Melanomma (Melanommataceae). After establishment of Loculoascomycetes (Luttrell 1955), Trematosphaeria was assigned Olopatadine to Pleosporaceae (Loculoascomycetes, Pleosporales) (Holm 1957), and this was followed by von Arx and Müller (1975). Trematosphaeria was assigned to Melanommataceae by Barr (1979a), and this has been widely followed (Eriksson 2006; Kirk et al. 2001; Lumbsch and Huhndorf 2007). Trematosphaeria pertusa, the lectotype species of Trematosphaeria (Clements and Shear 1931), is characterized by having semi-immersed to erumpent ascomata, filamentous pseudoparaphyses, cylindro-clavate
asci, fusoid, 1-septate reddish brown to dark brown ascospores (Zhang et al. 2008a). All of these characters are quite different from those of Melanomma, the familial type of Melanommataceae. Phylogenetic study Trematosphaeria pertusa forms a robust phylogenetic clade with Falciformispora lignatilis and Halomassarina thalassiae, and they are all assigned to Trematosphaeriaceae (Suetrong et al. 2009; Zhang et al. 2009a; Plate 1). Concluding remarks Trematosphaeria pertusa is a terrestrial species which can also survive in a freshwater environment. However, both Falciformispora lignatilis and Halomassarina thalassiae are check details marine fungi. Their habitat difference may indicate their distant relationship, at least above genus level. Verruculina Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm., Mycol. Res. 94: 689 (1990). (Testudinaceae) Generic description Habitat marine, saprobic.