9 Our results, showing severely impaired function of the D501N m

9. Our results, showing severely impaired function of the D501N mutant, are consistent with the earlier report 9. However, our results obtained for the R299W mutant are inconsistent with Kavanagh et al.9, who reported impaired function of R299W towards degradation of both C4b and C3b. Here, we observe diminished secretion but normal function.

Perhaps these discrepancies can be explained in terms of different purification techniques or how the functional analyses were performed. Mutations were investigated at a structural level using previously reported homology models of each independent FI domain. A structural investigation of the full-length FI model is not possible at present because there are not Pexidartinib yet enough experimental data to position the domains in relation to one another. However, for several mutations, M120V, H165R, A222G, D501N, the structural analysis is fully consistent with the observed experimental data, thereby allowing rationalization with the possible pathological nature of the substitution or the lack thereof (Table 2). This investigation suggests also that the area around His165 could be solvent exposed in the full-length protein. As we do not have a 3D model structure for the region of residue 299, we could not analyze the replacement

of the polar and most likely positively charged Arg299 by a bulky aromatic Trp. However, the lack of conservation of this residue in the sequences of various species suggests that it could be replaced Alisertib supplier without creating major folding/stability problems, as indeed noted experimentally. Additional work

will be required to understand in detail the P32A and N133S substitutions since these residues could be at the domains’ interfaces or involved in protein–protein interactions. The mutations identified in aHUS patients are heterozygous, in contrast to FI-deficient patients, who have homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations 34. The main difference between these two patient groups is the consumption of C3; FI-deficient patients have very low levels of C3 whereas levels in aHUS patients are normal or only moderately reduced. It is the C3 in aHUS patients that enhances kidney damage. FI-deficient patients CHIR-99021 price can also have kidney problems such as glomerulonephritis, but this differs from the microangiopathies in the kidneys of aHUS patients. We found that in most patients the level of FI in plasma was decreased when the corresponding mutant (C25F, W127x, N133S, L289x, R456x, T520x and W528x) was showing impaired secretion from HEK 293 cells. However, there were a few exceptions from this rule (M120V, A222G, R299W and W468x) where there was no decrease of FI plasma level despite the fact that secretion of these mutants was impaired. Most likely, this discrepancy can be explained by the fact the FI levels in normal healthy people and patients with mutations in CFI vary a lot since FI is an acute-phase protein.

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