9% at a diesel concentration of 1120 mg L-1 with GAELE A first-o

9% at a diesel concentration of 1120 mg L-1 with GAELE. A first-order rate constant of 0.10 h-1 was calculated. Kinetic analysis using Arvin’s model, which introduces mass transfer to the biofilm,

showed statistical Selonsertib order differences in the kinetic rate parameters (P < 0.001). Moreover, GAELE significantly increased biodegradability at high concentrations, with BOD5 and COD removals up to 90.8 and 80.7%, respectively. Putative hydrocarbon degrading bacteria responsible for the degradation under nitrate-reducing conditions were positively identified. CONCLUSIONS: The continuous-upflow packed bed reactor was capable of high percentage diesel biodegradation at short HRTs. The use of GAELE increased diesel availability and thus enhanced hydrocarbon MK-8931 price removal. Therefore, CPR packed with volcanic and alluvial stones combined with GAELE showed potential for the remediation of diesel-impacted sites. Copyright (C) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: Family functioning appears to be a predictor of psychological distress among childhood cancer survivors and their family members; however, relatively little is known about patterns in those families that are psychologically at-risk. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct clusters of families that include childhood cancer survivors,

and to evaluate differences between the clusters with respect to anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS).

Methods: Childhood cancer survivors and their parents (247 individuals: 88 adolescent cancer survivors, 87 mothers, and 72 fathers) completed self-report questionnaires. Perceptions of family functioning were assessed using the Family Relationship Index and its three dimensions (cohesiveness, expressiveness, and conflict), and individuals were classified into groups via a cluster analytic approach. State-trait anxiety, depression, and PTSS were

assessed to all of the participants.

Results: The individuals were classified into three types: One cluster featured high cohesiveness, high expressiveness, and low conflict (‘Supportive-type’, n = 102); a second cluster featured low cohesiveness, low expressiveness, and high conflict (‘Conflictive-type’, n = 32); and a third cluster Natural Product Library ic50 had moderate cohesiveness, moderate expressiveness, and moderate conflict (‘Intermediate-type’, n = 113). Among the three types, an analysis of variance revealed that ‘Conflictive-type’ members had the highest levels of PTSS, depression, and state trait anxiety.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that perceptions of family functioning are related to psychological distress in family members of childhood cancer survivors. A family-focused intervention might be a useful approach to targeting emotional distress in these families, particularly for families with a ‘Conflictive-type’ family member. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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