2b). High-resolution TEM results were fully consistent with these phenotypic observations (Fig. 2c). To define the role of the VirR/VirS system in the oxidative stress response in S. suis, the relative abilities of the ΔvirRS mutant to survive H2O2-induced oxidative stress were examined. Although the WT strain was sensitive to H2O2, the ΔvirRS strain exhibited increased sensitivity. A significantly decreased survival of the ΔvirRS mutant was observed at H2O2 concentrations ranging from 10 to 40 mM compared to WT (Fig. 3). These data indicate that the ΔvirRS mutant Ribociclib price is more susceptible to oxidative stress. The importance of the virRS-encoded phenotypes in
SS2 was then assessed for survival in freshly drawn mouse whole blood. Using ex vivo assays, we found that the WT strain proliferated in mouse blood, whereas the ΔvirRS mutant was more easily cleared (Fig. 4). To assess the role of VirR/VirS in S. suis virulence, learn more groups of 10 BALB/c mice were infected by intraperitoneal
injection with either WT or the ΔvirRS mutant. We found that all mice in the WT group developed severe clinical signs of SS2 infection, including weight loss, depression, rough hair coat, shivering and eyes abscess. Nine of them died within 12 h, and the last died at 24 h postinfection (Fig. 5). In contrast, the group infected with the ΔvirRS mutant only presented slight eyes abscess and depression during the first 24 h postinoculation. All of them then promptly recovered from the initial infection symptoms and survived until the experimental end point of 14 days. Bacteriological examinations were performed on the challenged mice at the early stage of infection, and the WT and mutant bacteria were, respectively, re-isolated from the vena caudalis of the inoculated mice, suggesting that
the mice get properly infected with the indicated strain. In the THY control group, all mice were all alive and symptom-free during the entire experiment. These results strongly suggested that the VirR/VirS system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SS2 infection. of To draw a global picture of the regulation mediated by the VirR/VirS system, we compared the protein expression profiles of WT and ΔvirRS strains using the quantitative MS-based proteomics approach, iTRAQ (Ross et al., 2004). Using cut-offs of 95% probability and twofold expression change for the identification of peptides, this analysis revealed that the expression of 72 proteins was affected in the absence of the VirR/VirS system. Of these, 50 proteins were positively regulated by VirR/VirS, and 22 were negatively regulated. The regulated proteins were classified into four major categories: metabolism, cellular processes and signalling, information storage and processing, and function unknown (Table 1). Further, the protein-encoding genes are scattered throughout the genome, indicating a global regulatory function for the VirR/VirS system.