16 and 17 Infections with viruses such as HIV, hepatitis B, influ

16 and 17 Infections with viruses such as HIV, hepatitis B, influenza, and rhinovirus have been shown to stimulate ROS generation.18 In this study, the oxidative state of children during acute bronchiolitis, which

is a common illness during childhood, was evaluated. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no published reports on serum oxidative/antioxidative markers of TAC, TOS, and OSI in children with acute bronchiolitis. Various antioxidants in plasma have an additive effect, protecting the organism from free radicals.19 In this respect, measurement of TAC provides information about the antioxidant capacity of the organism.11 In addition, OSI, the ratio of total plasma www.selleckchem.com/products/torin-1.html TOS level to TAC, is an indicator of oxidative stress, reflecting the redox balance between oxidation and antioxidation.10 and 12 The present study demonstrated that TAC was lower in patients with acute bronchiolitis than the control group. TOS and OSI were increased in moderate bronchiolitis patients in comparison with the control group. Reduction in antioxidant

enzyme (AOE) expression has been observed in the lungs of mice previously infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV).20 and 21 Impairment or decrease in the expression and/or activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione S-tranferase, and glutathione peroxidase have been shown in nasopharyngeal secretions of children with severe Z-VAD-FMK datasheet RSV bronchiolitis.5 Recently, Mallol

et al. measured the oxidant and antioxidant activity in bronchoalveolar fluid of 21 children with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans.22 They found an increased L-gulonolactone oxidase level of oxidative stress markers with a differential activity of antioxidant enzyme levels (normal catalase and increased glutathione peroxidase). Despite the marked airway narrowing found in all patients, their pulmonary function parameters were unrelated to oxidative stress markers suggesting that OS could be more related to airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) than to airway calibre. The present study also investigated whether oxidative stress could play a role in bronchiolitis severity. TOS was increased in moderate bronchiolitis in comparison to mild cases. An increase in OSI was also significant in moderate bronchiolitis. Oxygen saturation levels of patients were inversely correlated with TOS. Zeyrek et al. investigated the association of oxidative stress with DNA damage in 42 children with asthma bronchiale.23 Plasma TAC, TOS, and total peroxide concentrations (LOOH) were higher in patients than in healthy controls, and DNA damage correlated with increased TOS. Antioxidant treatment blocks transcription factor activation and chemokine gene expression in vitro. 24 and 25 Castro et al.

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