This was based on the assumption that the probability of diarrhea was stable over each 2-week period. The cumulative individual risk of developing diarrhea (R) was calculated by the formula In the case-crossover analysis, variables coming from the clinical evaluation were included in Paclitaxel the multivariate conditional logistic regression if they were related to diarrhea with a 0.20 or less significance level by univariate analysis. A backward selection process

was applied. A two-tailed p value of 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS software version 9.2 (Cary, NC, USA). Analyses were performed on anonymous data. This study was authorized by the “Direction du

Service de santé des armées,” Ministry of Defense. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hôpital d’Instruction des Armées, Laveran, Marseille. Military physicians reported a total of 240 cases of acute diarrhea; 223 individuals presented for consultation with a single episode and 17 consulted twice. Patients were mainly male (91.7%) and were serving in the Army (n = 123/240, 51%), the Air Force (n = 110/240, 46%), or the Medical Department (n = 7/240, 3%). Median age was 27 years [interquartile range (IQR): 24–34 y]. In the previous week, 150 patients (62.6%) stated that at least one person within their close circle had presented with diarrhea. The time between arrival in N’Djamena and the first episode of diarrhea could only be calculated Navitoclax datasheet for soldiers arriving in N’Djamena during the study period (n = 198). Figure 2 shows the number of diarrheal episodes by week of stay. The median time until the first diarrheal episode after arrival Atazanavir in theater was 4 weeks and 69% of all diarrheic episodes occurred during the first 6 weeks. The overall incidence rate was 49 cases per 1,000 PM (588 cases per 1,000 person-years). The incidence rate for each 2-week period varied from 8.8/1,000 PM at the beginning of the study period to 54.4/1,000 PM after 1 month, decreasing after 2 months to stabilize at 23/1,000

PM between the end of November 2007 and early January 2008 (Figure 3). An outbreak was observed in January 2008 (35.6/1,000 PM). Because of operational duties, French military personnel mostly stayed in the camp and consumed only prepackaged meals during the month of February 2008. This resulted in the lowest incidence rate of diarrhea (Figure 3). Finally, the cumulative individual risk of developing diarrhea during the study period was 0.23 (ie, the probability that a given soldier would develop diarrhea during the study period was 0.23). The symptoms associated with diarrhea were abdominal pain (87.4%), nausea (58.8%), vomiting (32.1%), fever (13.8%), asthenia (7.5%), and headache (4.1%). A median loss of duty of 1 day was observed and 41 (17.