“The role of systemic autoimmunity in human traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other forms of brain injuries is recognized but not well understood. In this study, a systematic investigation was performed to identify serum autoantibody responses to brain-specific proteins after TBI in humans. TBI autoantibodies showed predominant immunoreactivity against a cluster of bands from 38-50 kDa on human brain immunoblots,
which were identified as GFAP and GFAP breakdown products. GFAP autoantibody PD98059 in vitro levels increased by 7 days after injury, and were of the IgG subtype predominantly. Results from in vitro tests and rat TBI experiments also indicated that calpain was responsible for removing the amino and carboxyl termini of GFAP to yield a 38 kDa fragment. Additionally, TBI autoantibody staining co-localized with GFAP in injured
rat brain and in primary rat astrocytes. These results suggest that GFAP breakdown products persist within degenerating astrocytes in the brain. Anti-GFAP autoantibody also can enter living astroglia cells in culture and its presence appears to compromise glial cell health. TBI patients showed an average 3.77 fold increase in anti-GFAP autoantibody levels from early (0-1 days) to late (7-10 days) times post injury. Changes in autoantibody levels were negatively correlated with outcome as measured by GOS-E score at 6 months, suggesting that TBI patients with greater anti-GFAP immune-responses had worse outcomes. Due to the long lasting nature of IgG, a test to detect anti-GFAP autoantibodies is likely to prolong the temporal BI 6727 concentration window for assessment of brain damage in human patients.”
“Objective: Evaluate the predictive value of Boston Acute Stroke Imaging Scale (BASIS) in acute ischemic stroke in Chinese population. Methods: This was a retrospective study. 566 patients of acute ischemic stroke were classified as having a major stroke or minor stroke
based on BASIS. We compared short-term outcome (death, occurrence of complications, admission to intensive care unit [ICU] or neurological intensive care unit [NICU]), long-term outcome (death, recurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, modified Rankin scale) and economic index including learn more in-hospital cost and length of hospitalization. Continuous variables were compared by using the Student t test or Kruskal-Wallis test. Categorical variables were tested with the Chisquare test. Cox regression analysis was applied to identify whether BASIS was the independent predictive variable of death. Results: During hospitalization, 9 patients (4.6%) died in major stroke group while no patients died in minor stroke group (p smaller than 0.001), 12 patients in the major stroke group and 5 patients in minor stroke group were admitted to ICU/NICU (p=0.001). There were more complications (cerebral hernia, pneumonia, urinary tract infection) in major stroke group than minor stroke group (p smaller than 0.05).