The M. tuberculosis DAP biosynthesis genes have been demonstrated to be essential for in vitro growth and are Maraviroc in vitro therefore attractive targets for the development of novel antitubercular drugs. “
with pesticides is an undesired consequence of agricultural activities. Biopurification systems (BPS) comprise a novel strategy to degrade pesticides from contaminated wastewaters, consisting of a highly active biological mixture confined in a container or excavation. The design of BPS promotes microbial activity, in particular by white rot fungi (WRF). Due to their physiological features, specifically the production of highly unspecific ligninolytic enzymes and some intracellular enzymatic complexes, WRF show the ability to transform a wide range of organic pollutants. This minireview summarizes selleck chemicals llc the potential participation of WRF in BPS. The first part presents the potential use of WRF in biodegradation of pollutants, particularly pesticides, and includes a brief description of the enzymatic systems involved in their oxidation. The second part presents an outline of BPS, focusing on the elements that influence
the participation of WRF in their operation, and includes a summary of the studies regarding the fungal-mediated degradation of pesticides in BPS biomixtures and other solid-phase systems that mimic BPS. “
“The fish pathogenic oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica causes the disease Saprolegniosis in salmonids and other freshwater fish, resulting in considerable economic losses in aquaculture. Very little MG 132 is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the infection process of fish pathogenic oomycetes. In order to investigate the interaction in detail, an in vitro infection assay using an Oncorhynchus mykiss
(rainbow trout) cell line (RTG-2) was developed. In a zoospore/cyst cDNA library, we identified the ORF SpHtp1, which encodes a secreted protein containing an RxLR motif. Detailed expression analysis indicated that SpHtp1 is highly expressed in zoospores/cysts from S. parasitica and in the very early stages of infection on RTG-2 cells, when compared with in vitro-grown mycelium. Moreover, the protein, SpHtp1, was found to translocate into the RTG-2 trout cells, during the interaction with S. parasitica, and also when the RTG-2 cells were treated with recombinant SpHtp1 fused to a C-terminal His-tag. These findings suggest that protein translocation could play an important role in Saprolegniosis. Oomycetes contain some of the most devastating pathogens of animals and plants, causing major economic and environmental damage in natural and cultured ecosystems (Kamoun, 2003; van West, 2006; Phillips et al., 2008). One destructive oomycete pathogen of fish is Saprolegnia parasitica.