The current review reconsiders the hot hand in sports using a meta-analytic approach.\n\nDesign: Mean effect size and 95% confidence interval were determined using a random effects model. Heterogeneity
of the mean effect size was examined applying Cochran’s Q test and the “75 percent rule”.\n\nMethod: To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to provide an empirical investigation of the hot hand phenomenon related to sport and exercise behavior. Approximately 250 papers were located, but the final dataset included only 22 publications that met inclusion criteria, with 30 studies and 56 independent effect sizes. The articles extended over a period of twenty-seven years from 1985 until 2012.\n\nResults: The analysis of the effects yielded a minor positive mean effect size of .02, p = .49, using a random MAPK inhibitor effects model, which is sufficient evidence for arguing against the existence PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor of the hot hand. Due to the limited sample of studies available, only a few candidate-variables could be extracted and further
examined as potential moderator variables. However, none of the considered variables had the power to explain the heterogeneity of effect sizes.\n\nConclusions: The present study provides additional support for Gilovich et al.’s claim that a general hot hand effect probably does not exist in sport. The scientific implications of this review for prospect advances in the field are 4 presented and discussed. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Denitrifying biofilters can remove agricultural nitrates from subsurface drainage, reducing nitrate pollution that contributes to coastal hypoxic zones. The performance
and reliability of natural and engineered systems dependent upon microbially mediated processes, such as the denitrifying LDN-193189 biofilters, can be affected by the spatial structure of their microbial communities. Furthermore, our understanding of the relationship between microbial community composition and function is influenced by the spatial distribution of samples. In this study we characterized the spatial structure of bacterial communities in a denitrifying biofilter in central Illinois. Bacterial communities were assessed using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis for bacteria and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of nosZ for denitrifying bacteria. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) analyses indicated that bacteria showed statistically significant spatial structure by depth and transect, while denitrifying bacteria did not exhibit significant spatial structure. For determination of spatial patterns, we developed a package of automated functions for the R statistical environment that allows directional analysis of microbial community composition data using either ANOSIM or Mantel statistics.