Table 1 Synthesis of the nanocomposites in ionic liquid 2-hydroxy

Table 1 Synthesis of the nanocomposites in ionic liquid 2-hydroxyethanaminium formate with microwave assistance   Loading (mg) Entry K2PtCl6 Ionic liquid

Substrate (100 mg) Shape/Size (nm) 1 (Pt/GE) 14.5 15000 Graphene Sphere/14 ± 6 2 (Pt/GO) 100 15000 Graphite oxide Cube-like/18 ± 8 3 (Pt/GO) 15 15000 Graphite oxide Cube-like/4 ± 7 The analytical instruments used were as the following: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with Bruker AVA-400, Madison, WI, USA (400 MHz), element analysis (EA) by FLASH EA 1112 Series, Thermo Finnigan, Milano, Italy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) by Phillips PANalytical X’Pert PRO MPD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (Cu, λ = 0.1541 nm, 2 theta: 5° to 80°), thermal GF120918 solubility dmso gravity analysis (TGA) with Perkin Elmer 1 TGA, Waltham, MA, USA (2 to 5 mg samples in Pt plate with 5°/min heating rate), transmitted electron microscopy (TEM) with JEOL JEM-2010, Akishima-shi, Japan (LaB6, 200 kV), gas chromatography p38 MAPK activation (GC) by Agilent Technologies 7890A GC system with Agilent Technologies 7683B Series injector, Santa Clara,

CA, USA. The hydrogenation of styrene was performed with a Parr 4762 (Q)* reactor, Moline, IL, USA, under two H2 pressure conditions: one at 100°C under 1,520 psi and the other at 100°C under 140 psi H2 atmosphere, both with a reaction time of 1 h. The hydrogenation of styrene with commercial Pd/C was loaded with catalyst 50 mg and styrene 1.22 g then 6 mL methanol was added in the Parr 4762

(Q)* reactor. Similar hydrogenation with commercial Pt/C was loaded with 50 mg of catalyst and 667 mg of styrene followed by 6 mL methanol in the reactor. For model catalyst (Pt/GE) experiments, it was added in the 4762 (Q)* reactor with 20 mg catalyst and 320 mg styrene with 6 mL methanol. After hydrogenation, the reactor was cooled down to room temperature; the mixed hydrogenation products were filtered with diatomite, and the liquid phases were analyzed with GC. see more results and discussion The ionic liquid 2-hyroxyethanaminium formate was prepared at low temperature by a slow neutralization reaction between 2-hyroxyethanamine and formic acid in exact 1:1 molar ratio (Figure 2). The temperature at which neutralization was performed is important because only when the ionic liquid was made at temperature strictly lower these than 0°C that the 1H NMR results exhibit a spectrum consistent to the formula of [HOCH2CH2NH3][HCO2], as shown in Figure 3a. The heat released during neutralization should be carefully controlled at minimal to keep side reactions to occur that lead to 2-hyroxyethyl formamide or 2-aminoethyl formate (see Figure 3b,c). Figure 2 The synthesis of ionic liquid of 2-hydroxyenthanaminimium formate and the thermal transformation. Figure 3 1 H NMR spectra of 2-hydroxyethanaminium formate synthesized. (a) At 0°C, (b) at 80°C, and (c) the resultant1H NMR from (a) upon heating at 170°C for 4 h.

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