Results: We report that patients with FTLD have a significant inc

Results: We report that patients with FTLD have a significant increase in synaptophysin and depletion in SNAP-25 proteins compared to both control selleckchem subjects and individuals with AD (P < 0.001). The FTLD up-regulation of synaptophysin is disease specific (P < 0.0001), and is not influenced by age (P = 0.787) or cortical atrophy (P = 0.248). The SNAP-25 depletion is influenced by a number of factors, including family history and histological characteristics of FTLD, APOE genotype, MAPT haplotype and gender. Thus, more profound loss of SNAP-25 occurred in tau-negative FTLD, and was associated with female gender and lack

of family history of FTLD. Presence of APOEε4 allele and MAPT H2 haplotype in FTLD had a significant influence on the expression of synaptic proteins, Selleckchem Decitabine specifically invoking a decrease in SNAP-25. Conclusions: Our results suggest that synaptic expression in FTLD is influenced by a number of genetic factors which need to be taken into account in future neuropathological and biochemical studies dealing with altered neuronal mechanisms of the disease. The selective loss of SNAP-25 in FTLD may be closely related to the core clinical non-cognitive features of the disease. “

(miRNAs) are short regulatory RNAs that negatively regulate protein biosynthesis at the post-transcriptional level and participate in the pathogenesis of different types of human cancers, including glioblastoma. In particular, the levels of miRNA-221 are overexpressed in many cancers and miRNA-221 exerts its functions as an oncogene. Nevertheless, the roles of miRNA-221 in carmustine (BCNU)-resistant glioma cells have not been totally elucidated. In the present study, we explored the effects of miRNA-221 on BCNU-resistant glioma cells and the possible molecular mechanisms

by which miRNA-221 mediated the cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis and BCNU resistance were investigated. We found that miR-221 ADAMTS5 was overexpressed in glioma cells, including BCNU-resistant cells. Moreover, we found that miR-221 regulated cell proliferation and BCNU resistance in glioma cells. Overexpression of miR-221 led to cell survival and BCNU resistance and reduced cell apoptosis induced by BCNU, whereas knockdown of miR-221 inhibited cell proliferation and prompted BCNU sensitivity and cell apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that miR-221 down-regulated PTEN and activated Akt, which resulted in cell survival and BCNU resistance. Overexpression of PTEN lacking 3′UTR or PI3-K/Akt specific inhibitor wortmannin attenuated miR-221-mediated BCNU resistance and prompted cell apoptosis. We propose that miR-221 regulated cell proliferation and BCNU resistance in glioma cells by targeting PI3-K/PTEN/Akt signaling axis. Our findings may provide a new potential therapeutic target for treatment of glioblastoma.

Comments are closed.