PamI recognition site We also found that activity of this enzyme

PamI recognition site. We also found that activity of this enzyme was lower in E. coli than in P. aminophilus JCM 7686 (CCATGG sites of plasmids pAMI702 selleck chemicals llc and pACYC184/MRW were only partially resistant to NcoI digestion (Fig. 4a) compared with those of the pAMI7 plasmid (see above),

which most probably resulted from the different growth conditions of the strains (37 vs. 30 °C). To examine the putative role of the PamI system in stable maintenance of pAMI7, we tested the stability of two mini-derivatives of this plasmid: (1) pAMI702 (contains PamI) and (2) pAMI703 (deprived of PamI). The retention of both plasmids was determined in plasmid-less P. pantotrophus KL100, a strain routinely used in our laboratory as a host for paracoccal plasmids. The analysis revealed that pAMI702 was stably maintained: 74% of cells still harbored the plasmid after 30 generations of growth in nonselective medium. In contrast, pAMI703, which lacks PamI, was highly unstable and rapidly lost under analogous growth conditions (3% stability). We also tested whether or not the PamI system is able to stabilize a heterologous replicon. For this purpose the R-M module was cloned into the low-copy-number shuttle vector pABW3 (unstable in Paracoccus spp.) and the stability of the resulting plasmid pABW3-RM

was tested in the strain KL100. Stabilization of pABW3-RM was observed (53% stability; in comparison with 4% stability of ‘empty’ vector pABW3), which confirmed that the PamI system can act as a plasmid stabilization cassette. In this study we show that ORF14 and ORF15 of plasmid pAMI7 of the methylotrophic bacterium P. aminophilus JCM 7686 constitute a functional type II R-M system, designated PamI. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that related R-M systems are present in the genomes of distinct tuclazepam taxonomic groups of Bacteria (e.g. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Chlamydiae, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes) as well as in a member of the Archaea (Fig. 1). This

finding illustrates that horizontal gene transfer contributes significantly to the dissemination of R-M modules – even between domains. In the case of PamI, the transfer may be enhanced by the location of the system within the mobile plasmid pAMI7, whose replication system is functional in many members of the Alphaproteobacteria (Dziewit et al., 2011). One of the R.PamI relatives is restriction endonuclease NcoI that is frequently used in gene cloning experiments. Although the level of sequence similarity between these two enzymes is not strong (33%), our analysis revealed that they are isoschizomers (they share the same sequence specificity). Interestingly, in silico analysis revealed that the R.PamI and NcoI REases are accompanied by MTases, which generate different methylated products (m5C and m4C, respectively); therefore they are members of different MTase subfamilies. This could indicate recombinational shuffling of genes encoding individual components of R-M systems. Furthermore, we showed that M.

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