Modifiable risk factors such as obesity, lifestyle, sleep positio

Modifiable risk factors such as obesity, lifestyle, sleep position and medication usage should be addressed. Proteinuria has been described in SA.54–57 Urine dipsticks have shown greater degrees of proteinuria when performed at the time of polysomnography.54,55 Quantification of urine protein has also demonstrated greater proteinuria in SA patients compared with those without SA.56 Case reports have described

improvement or even resolution of proteinuria with treatment of SA.57 Not all studies have shown the association of proteinuria with SA however.58 The potential causes of proteinuria in SA are similar to factors associated with SA and CKD. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis as discussed above is one plausible lesion that may occur with SA and result in proteinuria. The heightened sympathetic tone and intermittent intrarenal Proteasome inhibitor haemodynamic changes caused by apnoea and hypopnoea may potentially lead to damage within the nephron. Ischaemia and reperfusion injury can lead to oxidative stress and free radical formation as previously described.52,59 Lower circulating nitric oxide levels have been demonstrated in SA patients compared with the general population, further suggesting hypoperfusion and ischaemia.60 Elevated vascular endothelial growth

factor levels have been demonstrated in SA patients.61 Repetitive injury to the kidney as described above can lead to transient and even sustained damage within the kidney. In the obese patient EPZ-6438 mouse with isolated proteinuria, screening for SA may be warranted as part of the work-up. Isolated proteinuria is detrimental to renal function. Moreover, this subset of patients is at greater risk for complications of SA such as heart disease and cerebrovascular disease.

Aggressive treatment of SA with positive airway devices or lifestyle medication should be important in this population. The relationship between renal transplant and SA can be viewed as a paradox. As mentioned above, renal transplant can potentially improve SA in the dialysis population but the post-transplant state adds another dimension of risk for SA specifically by predisposing patients to the metabolic syndrome. Case reports have shown renal transplantation improves or cures SA in patients on dialysis.31,39,40 If the uremic milieu were responsible for SA, the cure Y-27632 2HCl of SA by renal transplantation seems plausible in a subset of patients who develops SA during dialysis. However, the few cases of cure after renal transplantation have not translated into an overall lower rate of SA in renal transplant patients compared with dialysis patients. The actual prevalence of SA in renal transplant patients may be comparable with the dialysis population. Although the Berlin Sleep Apnea Questionnaire has not been validated in CKD patients, Molner et al.62 used the Berlin Sleep Apnea Questionnaire to assess risk of SA in 1037 kidney transplant patients and 175 patients wait-listed for transplant.

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