In the present study, we achieved around 200% improvement in beta

In the present study, we achieved around 200% improvement in beta-carotene production in S. cerevisiae through specific site optimization of crtI and crtYB, in which five codons of crtI and eight codons of crtYB were rationally mutated. Furthermore, the effects of the truncated HMG-CoA reductase (tHMG1) from S. cerevisiae and HMG-CoA reductase (mva) from Staphylococcus aureus on the production of beta-carotene in S. cerevisiae were also evaluated. Our results indicated that mva from a prokaryotic

organism might be more effective than tHMG1 for beta-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. “
“Microsporidia are obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasites with a broad host spectrum characterized by a unique and highly sophisticated invasion apparatus, the polar tube (PT). In a previous study, two PT proteins, named AlPTP1 (50 kDa) and AlPTP2 (35 kDa), were identified in Antonospora locustae, an orthoptera parasite that is used as a learn more biological control Crenolanib mw agent against locusts. Antibodies raised against AlPTP2 cross-reacted with a band migrating at ∼70 kDa, suggesting that this 70-kDa antigen is closely related to AlPTP2. A blastp search against the A. locustae genome database allowed the identification of two further PTP2-like proteins named AlPTP2b (568 aa) and AlPTP2c (599 aa). Both

proteins are characterized by a specific serine- and glycine-rich N-terminal extension with elastomeric structural features and share a common C-terminal end conserved with AlPTP2 (∼88% identity Anacetrapib for the last 250 aa). MS analysis of the 70-kDa band revealed the presence of AlPTP2b. Specific anti-AlPTP2b antibodies labelled the extruded PTs of the A. locustae spores, confirming that this antigen is a PT component. Finally, we showed that several PTP2-like proteins are also present in other phylogenetically related insect microsporidia, including Anncaliia algerae and Paranosema grylli. “
“Exposure to microorganisms is

considered an environmental factor that can contribute to Type 1 diabetes. Insulin-binding proteins (IBPs) on microorganisms may induce production of antibodies that can react with the human insulin receptor (HIR) with possible consequences in developing a diabetic autoimmune response against HIR and insulin. The interaction of insulin with microorganisms was studied by screening 45 microbial species for their ability to bind insulin. Binding assays were performed using labelled insulin to identify insulin-binding components on the microorganisms. Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia cenocepacia isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida were the only strains of those tested, which showed insulin-binding components on their cell surfaces. Further work with A. salmonicida suggested that the insulin-binding activity of A. salmonicida is due to the A-layer.

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